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21-3715.

History: L. 1969, ch. 180, § 21-3715; L. 1989, ch. 92, § 21; L. 1991, ch. 33, § 28; L. 1992, ch. 298, § 44; L. 1993, ch. 291, § 74; Repealed, L. 2010, ch. 136, § 307; July 1, 2011.

Source or Prior Law:

21-513, 21-514, 21-515, 21-516, 21-517, 21-518, 21-519, 21-520, 21-521, 21-522, 21-525.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

"Decisions, Decisions, Decisions," Terry L. Bullock, 17 W.L.J. 26 (1977).

Mandatory minimum terms for crimes involving firearms, 26 K.L.R. 277 (1978).

"Survey of Kansas Law: Criminal Law," Robert A. Wason, 32 K.L.R. 395, 420 (1984).

Attorney General's Opinions:

Law enforcement training center; requirements for admission. 80-225.

CASE ANNOTATIONS

Annotation to K.S.A. 21-520:

1. Alleged trial court errors discussed; conviction upheld. State v. Hamrick, 206 Kan. 543, 544, 479 P.2d 854.

Annotations to K.S.A. 21-3715:

2. Mentioned on interlocutory appeal questioning order suppressing evidence. State v. Boyle, 207 Kan. 833, 836, 486 P.2d 849.

3. Error to fail to give instruction limiting scope of evidence of prior conviction. State v. Rambo, 208 Kan. 929, 495 P.2d 101.

4. Conviction upheld; illegal arrest will not invalidate conviction without prejudice; evidence sufficient to sustain conviction. State v. Larkin, 209 Kan. 660, 498 P.2d 37.

5. Numerous assignments of error disposed of; conviction hereunder upheld. State v. Scott, 210 Kan. 426, 427, 430, 502 P.2d 753.

6. Element "without authority" proved by circumstantial evidence; attempted burglary conviction affirmed. State v. Cory, 211 Kan. 528, 532, 506 P.2d 1115.

7. Conviction hereunder upheld; motion for new trial on ground of newly discovered evidence denied. State v. Larkin, 212 Kan. 158, 510 P.2d 123.

8. Cited in appeal on question reserved; patterned jury instruction disapproved. State v. McClanahan, 212 Kan. 208, 510 P.2d 153.

9. Failure to specify ulterior felony in information not reversible error where made clear at preliminary hearing or by context of other charges in information. State v. Lora, 213 Kan. 184, 187, 515 P.2d 1086.

10. Contention that intoxication destroyed capacity to form necessary intent was issue for jury; not disturbed on appeal. State v. Miles, 213 Kan. 245, 515 P.2d 742.

11. Conviction hereunder and under K.S.A. 21-3701 upheld; seizure of articles valid. State v. Moretz, 214 Kan. 370, 520 P.2d 1260.

12. Conviction hereunder; extrajudicial statements supported by evidence; exclusion of testimony upheld. State v. Law, 214 Kan. 643, 522 P.2d 320.

13. Convictions hereunder; instructions of trial court reviewed and upheld. State v. Atkinson, 215 Kan. 139, 140, 523 P.2d 737.

14. Conviction of burglary and theft; evidence sufficient to form basis for reasonable inference of guilt. State v. Wilkins, 215 Kan. 145, 146, 523 P.2d 728.

15. Conviction hereunder; acquittal on charge of theft did not preclude charge hereunder; no double jeopardy. State v. Pruitt, 216 Kan. 103, 106, 531 P.2d 860.

16. Conviction of attempted burglary reversed; trial errors deprived defendant of fair trial. State v. Carson, 216 Kan. 711, 533 P.2d 1342.

17. Acquittal of burglary charge did not preclude conviction of theft under K.S.A. 21-3701. State v. Blassingill, 216 Kan. 722, 533 P.2d 1228.

18. Conviction hereunder and under K.S.A. 21-3701 reversed; unreasonable search and seizure; confession inadmissible. State v. Boster, 217 Kan. 618, 619, 539 P.2d 294.

19. Conviction hereunder; warrantless arrest under K.S.A. 22-2401 upheld; admission of evidence and instructions approved. State v. Curtis, 217 Kan. 717, 538 P.2d 1383.

20. Referred to in determining intent not necessary element of crime proscribed by K.S.A. 21-3411. State v. Farris, 218 Kan. 136, 140, 542 P.2d 725.

21. Admission of evidence and instructions to jury upheld; conviction affirmed. State v. Andrews, 218 Kan. 156, 542 P.2d 325.

22. Conviction hereunder upheld; admission of evidence of prior crimes not reversible error. State v. Watkins, 219 Kan. 81, 83, 547 P.2d 810.

23. Conviction hereunder reviewed and upheld. State v. McFall, 219 Kan. 798, 549 P.2d 559.

24. Evidence sufficient to sustain conviction of guilt hereunder. State v. Baker, 219 Kan. 854, 855, 549 P.2d 911.

25. Record examined on appeal from conviction hereunder; no reversible error. State v. Mahkuk, 220 Kan. 74, 551 P.2d 869.

26. Conviction hereunder; record examined; judgment affirmed. State v. Motor, 220 Kan. 99, 551 P.2d 783.

27. Evidence sufficient for reasonable inference of guilt; evidence of prior conviction upheld. State v. Howard, 220 Kan. 117, 551 P.2d 835.

28. Conviction of attempted burglary affirmed; instructions upheld. State v. Wasinger, 220 Kan. 599, 556 P.2d 189.

29. Conviction of burglary of liquor store affirmed; evidence sufficient. State v. Jackson, 220 Kan. 675, 556 P.2d 885.

30. Conviction of felony theft and burglary reviewed; no reversible error found. State v. Hall, 220 Kan. 712, 713, 556 P.2d 413.

31. Conviction of felony theft and burglary affirmed; admission of testimony of burglary theft in Oklahoma upheld. State v. Burnett, 221 Kan. 40, 558 P.2d 1087.

32. Conviction of burglary affirmed; evidence sufficient. State v. Moss, 221 Kan. 47, 557 P.2d 1292.

33. Conviction of burglary and misdemeanor theft reviewed; no reversible error. State v. Gross, 221 Kan. 98, 558 P.2d 665.

34. Construction of section referred to upholding conviction of theft under K.S.A. 21-3701. State v. Edwards, 221 Kan. 405, 406, 559 P.2d 807.

35. Conviction hereunder reversed and remanded; right of defendant to post-arrest silence violated by prosecutor in impeaching defendant's testimony by such silence. State v. Heath, 222 Kan. 50, 563 P.2d 418.

36. Conviction hereunder upheld; psychiatric examination of indigent defendant's relying on insanity defense discussed. State v. Burnett, 222 Kan. 162, 563 P.2d 451.

37. Conviction hereunder upheld; admission of weapon into evidence not in error. State v. DeMotte, 222 Kan. 206, 563 P.2d 476.

38. Conviction upheld under section. State v. Jackson, 222 Kan. 424, 565 P.2d 278.

39. Conviction under this section affirmed. State v. Marquez, 222 Kan. 441, 442, 565 P.2d 245.

40. Section applied; trial court did not commit reversible error. State v. Green, 222 Kan. 729, 567 P.2d 893.

41. Alleged trial errors examined on appeal from conviction of burglary and felony theft; convictions affirmed. State v. Martin, 223 Kan. 78, 573 P.2d 576.

42. Conviction hereunder affirmed; arrest valid; search legal. State v. Cooper, 223 Kan. 175, 573 P.2d 1006.

43. Record examined on appeal from conviction hereunder; evidence sufficient to establish offense. State v. Ervin, 223 Kan. 201, 573 P.2d 600.

44. Conviction hereunder reversed; charges dismissed as provided by K.S.A. 22-4401 IV (e). State v. Keener, 224 Kan. 100, 577 P.2d 1182.

45. Cited; held no attempted burglary. State v. Sullivan, 224 Kan. 110, 122, 578 P.2d 1108.

46. Record reviewed on appeal from conviction hereunder and of other crimes; no error. State v. Howard, 224 Kan. 208, 209, 579 P.2d 702.

47. No reversible error found in review of convictions of burglary and theft. State v. McBarron, 224 Kan. 710, 585 P.2d 1041.

48. Conviction hereunder as an aider and abettor affirmed; element of intent inferred from circumstantial evidence; standard of appellate review; abuse of judicial discretion in sentencing. State v. Goering, 225 Kan. 755, 756, 594 P.2d 194.

49. Conviction hereunder reversed; constitutional right to effective assistance of counsel; conflicting defenses. State v. West, 2 Kan. App. 2d 297, 578 P.2d 287.

50. Conviction hereunder reversed and remanded; prosecutorial misconduct. State v. Dill, 3 Kan. App. 2d 67, 589 P.2d 634.

51. Conviction hereunder affirmed. State v. Duncan, 3 Kan. App. 2d 271, 593 P.2d 427.

52. When probation is revoked, jail time credit may not be given by court for time in halfway house. State v. Babcock, 226 Kan. 356, 597 P.2d 1117.

53. Appeal from conviction hereunder. State v. Marks, 226 Kan. 704, 705, 602 P.2d 1344.

54. Appeal from conviction hereunder. State v. Mitchell, 226 Kan. 776, 602 P.2d 1383.

55. Appeal from order waiving juvenile jurisdiction over juvenile charged hereunder. In re Edwards, 227 Kan. 723, 608 P.2d 1006.

56. Conviction affirmed; a lay witness may generally testify concerning the comparison of footwear worn by a defendant and footprints found at the scene of a crime. State v. Christon, 3 Kan. App. 2d 372, 595 P.2d 356.

57. Evidence obtained by person acting as agent of police properly suppressed. State v. Bohannon, 3 Kan. App. 2d 448, 449, 596 P.2d 190.

58. Cited; no appeal of denial of sentence modification motion where filed more than 130 days after sentencing; conviction hereunder. State v. Henning, 3 Kan. App. 2d 607, 599 P.2d 318.

59. Circumstantial evidence adequate to support guilty verdict; later in time warrantless search of car in custody upheld under "plain view" doctrine with probable cause. State v. Mitchell, 3 Kan. App. 2d 635, 636, 599 P.2d 1025.

60. Conviction hereunder affirmed; no error in endorsement of additional witness for state; racial makeup of jury not discriminatory; guilty verdict on burglary charge not prerequisite. State v. Hayden, 4 Kan. App. 2d 335, 606 P.2d 115.

61. Double jeopardy not bar to theft retrial; burglary evidence admissible even though presented at original trial which resulted in burglary acquittal and theft mistrial. In re Shotwell & Grades, 4 Kan. App. 2d 382, 383, 607 P.2d 83.

62. Conviction affirmed; rules for valuation of property reviewed. State v. Robinson, 4 Kan. App. 2d 428, 608 P.2d 1014.

63. Trial court's instructions not clearly erroneous; conviction of felony murder affirmed. State v. Hearron, 228 Kan. 693, 619 P.2d 812.

64. Before defendant can be sentenced as habitual criminal, each succeeding offense must be committed after conviction for preceding offense. State v. Wilson, 6 Kan. App. 2d 302, 627 P.2d 1185.

65. No error in failure to instruct on criminal trespass in attempted burglary case. State v. Bell, 6 Kan. App. 2d 573, 631 P.2d 254 (1981).

66. Policemen's statements were not voluntary when refusal to answer would result in departmental discipline. State v. Mzhickteno, 8 Kan. App. 2d 389, 658 P.2d 1052 (1983).

67. Open-air, free-standing, low-fenced hog pen not "structure" within purview hereof. State v. Fisher, 232 Kan. 760, 761, 762, 763, 764, 658 P.2d 1021 (1983).

68. Charge hereunder dismissed because of improper arrest; sheriff acted beyond statutory authority in executing warrant outside county of office. State v. Hennessee, 232 Kan. 807, 658 P.2d 1034 (1983).

69. The action of opening bay door of truck and reaching in bay compartment constitutes an entry. State v. Zimmerman & Schmidt, 233 Kan. 151, 156, 158, 660 P.2d 960 (1983).

70. Mere presence of another (victim), regardless of defendant's knowledge or intent, constitutes aggravated burglary. State v. Reed, 8 Kan. App. 2d 615, 616, 663 P.2d 680 (1983).

71. Burglary held to be inherently dangerous to human life and supports felony murder rule. Smith v. State, 8 Kan. App. 2d 684, 688, 666 P.2d 730 (1983).

72. Where entry obtained by fraud, deceit or pretense, entry is not authorized and without authority. State v. Maxwell, 234 Kan. 393, 397, 672 P.2d 590 (1983).

73. Mere unlawful entry does not support inference of particular intent; additional evidence needed on intent. State v. Harper, 9 Kan. App. 2d 349, 350, 351, 676 P.2d 774 (1984).

74. Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine inapplicable where wife's voluntary statements not protected by marital privilege. State v. Newman, 235 Kan. 29, 43, 680 P.2d 257 (1984).

75. Where court dismissed charges prior to preliminary hearing, state must appeal dismissal to invoke appellate jurisdiction. State v. Patrzykont, 235 Kan. 537, 680 P.2d 555 (1984).

76. While burglary is specific intent crime, intent may be inferred from totality of surrounding circumstances. State v. Harper, 235 Kan. 825, 828, 685 P.2d 850 (1984).

77. Filing of affidavit of prejudice on afternoon preceding sentencing amounts to waiver of question. State v. Snedecor, 9 Kan. App. 2d 454, 458, 680 P.2d 563 (1984).

78. Consecutive sentences not mandated by K.S.A. 21-4608(4) where defendant commits felony while on release awaiting trial. State v. Reed, 10 Kan. App. 2d 189, 694 P.2d 1329 (1985).

79. Suspended sentences included in meaning of probation in consecutive sentencing statute, K.S.A. 21-4608(3). State v. Ashley, 236 Kan. 551, 553, 693 P.2d 1168 (1985).

80. Circumstances when consecutive sentences (K.S.A. 21-4608) required determined. State v. Reed, 237 Kan. 685, 686, 703 P.2d 756 (1985).

81. Res gestae evidence, inconsistent jury verdicts, trial court response to jury questions during deliberations discussed. State v. Peck, 237 Kan. 756, 703 P.2d 781 (1985).

82. Jail time credit (K.S.A. 21-4614) while in community corrections facility on probation, authority to commit discussed. State v. Fowler, 238 Kan. 326, 329, 710 P.2d 1268 (1985).

83. Acquittal hereunder; where proceedings recessed overnight, no double jeopardy when court reversed previous dismissal ruling on companion charge. State v. Lowe, 238 Kan. 755, 762, 763, 715 P.2d 404 (1986); reversed, Lowe v. State, 242 Kan. 64, 744 P.2d 856 (1987).

84. Violation of sequestration order, without knowledge or connivance of defendant, insufficient reason to exclude alibi witness. State v. Hill, 10 Kan. App. 2d 607, 706 P.2d 472 (1985).

85. Notes on issues regarding aggravated burglary (K.S.A. 21-3716) conviction; lesser crimes, preliminary hearing transcripts, "unauthorized entry" examined. State v. Fondren, 11 Kan. App. 2d 309, 311, 721 P.2d 284 (1986).

86. Statutory guidelines for acceptance of guilty plea (K.S.A. 22-3210) examined in K.S.A. 60-1507 proceeding. Noble v. State, 240 Kan. 162, 727 P.2d 473 (1986).

87. Denial of motion allowing late filing of appeal where no indication to appeal found in record examined. State v. Cook, 12 Kan. App. 2d 309, 741 P.2d 379 (1987).

88. Cited; court's dismissal of charge on own motion after state's case, then reinstatement with further proceedings as double jeopardy examined. Lowe v. State, 242 Kan. 64, 744 P.2d 856 (1987).

89. Court's power to set aside, sua sponte, a plea of nolo contendere (K.S.A. 22-3210) examined. State v. Dillon, 242 Kan. 410, 748 P.2d 856 (1988).

90. Prior crimes instruction, jury requests for information, venue examined. State v. Redford, 242 Kan. 658, 659, 750 P.2d 1013 (1988).

91. Warrantless search, "plain view" and "fruit of the poisonous tree" doctrines, confession and evidence following illegal arrest examined. State v. Kirby, 12 Kan. App. 2d 346, 352, 744 P.2d 146 (1987), affirmed, 242 Kan. 803, 751 P.2d 1041 (1988).

92. Cited; felony murder rule (K.S.A. 21-3401) as not excluding killing of co-felon from its application examined. State v. Hoang, 243 Kan. 40, 41, 755 P.2d 7 (1988).

93. Conviction reversed; alternative burglary theories—sufficiency of evidence, underlying felony under K.S.A. 21-3401, in-custody statement where English secondary language examined. State v. Garcia, 243 Kan. 662, 663, 763 P.2d 585 (1988).

94. 6 th Amendment as shield to defendant's misconduct; admitting statement of deceased eyewitness; admitting prior taped statement of prosecution witness; nonuse of ballistics report examined. State v. Gettings, 244 Kan. 236, 238, 769 P.2d 25 (1989).

95. Manifest necessity in declaring mistrial; second trial as not constituting double jeopardy examined. In re Habeas Corpus Petition of Hoang, 245 Kan. 560, 781 P.2d 731 (1989).

96. Authority of accused to enter premises not negated by entry for unlawful purpose. State v. Harper, 246 Kan. 14, 27, 785 P.2d 1341 (1990).

97. Miranda protection as inapplicable in probation revocation hearing determined. State v. Aldape, 14 Kan. App. 2d 521, 794 P.2d 672 (1990).

98. Presumptive sentencing statutes examined; trial court's obligation to read K.S.A. 21-4601 et seq. as a whole noted. State v. Ray, 15 Kan. App. 2d 1, 800 P.2d 148 (1990).

99. Elements necessary to sustain charge of burglary examined. State v. Skelton, 247 Kan. 34, 49, 795 P.2d 349 (1990).

100. Instruction on aggravated burglary erroneous where essential element of human presence omitted. State v. Crawford, 247 Kan. 223, 227, 228, 795 P.2d 401 (1990).

101. Rules governing motions for new trial based upon newly discovered evidence reiterated. State v. Redford, 248 Kan. 130, 804 P.2d 983 (1991).

102. Trial court's consideration of events occurring after crime for which defendant being sentenced examined. State v. Hannah, 248 Kan. 141, 804 P.2d 990 (1991).

103. Cited in opinion holding that possession of controlled substance (K.S.A. 65-4127b) is distinct from possession without affixing stamps (K.S.A. 79-5208). State v. Berberich, 248 Kan. 854, 861, 811 P.2d 1192 (1991).

104. Vacation of original sentence and imposition of harsher one, when sentence effective, rendering appellate opinion on moot issue examined. State v. Zirkle 15 Kan. App. 2d 674, 675, 814 P.2d 452 (1991).

105. Contention that evidence insufficient for identification of defendant as perpetrator without merit; conviction may be sustained by circumstantial evidence. State v. Richmond, 250 Kan. 375, 376, 827 P.2d 743 (1992).

106. Single impulse rule (single larceny doctrine) not applicable to burglary of multiple vehicles. State v. McClanahan, 251 Kan. 533, 538, 836 P.2d 1164 (1992).

107. Cited where aggravated burglary conviction reversed for failure to instruct on specific underlying felony or felonies and their elements. State v. Linn, 251 Kan. 797, 801, 840 P.2d 1133 (1992).

108. Parole board's implementation of revised conditional release policies noted as prospective only and not ex post facto punishment. Wishteyah v. Kansas Parole Board, 17 Kan. App. 2d 480, 838 P.2d 371 (1992).

109. Evidence sufficient to prove juvenile is excluded from jurisdiction of juvenile code examined. State v. Shelton, 252 Kan. 319, 320, 845 P.2d 23 (1993).

110. Trial court precluded from imposing jail time as condition of probation for misdemeanor conviction (K.S.A. 21-4602(3)). State v. Kohlman, 18 Kan. App. 2d 432, 854 P.2d 318 (1993).

111. Criminal trespass not lesser included offense of burglary. State v. Rush, 18 Kan. App. 2d 694, 700, 859 P.2d 387 (1993).

112. Whether court erred by failing to instruct on attempted simple burglary as a lesser included offense of attempted aggravated burglary examined. State v. Watson, 256 Kan. 396, 399, 885 P.2d 1226 (1994).

113. Whether consecutive sentences required when defendant assigned to community corrections commits new felony; whether action departure discussed. State v. Howard, 20 Kan. App. 2d 252, 253, 885 P.2d 1273 (1994).

114. Whether judge erred in enhancing defendant's sentence under habitual criminal act examined. State v. Eastridge, 20 Kan. App. 2d 973, 984, 894 P.2d 243 (1995).

115. Trial court erred by ruling gas station constituted a dwelling for burglary purposes. State v. Schultz, 22 Kan. App. 2d 60, 61, 911 P.2d 1119 (1996).

116. Requires proof of specific intent; specific intent distinguished from general intent. State v. Esher, 22 Kan. App. 2d 779, 783, 922 P.2d 1123 (1996).

117. Conviction for theft of woman's underwear sexually motivated; registration required under sex offender registration act (K.S.A. 22-4901 et seq.). State v. Patterson, 25 Kan. App. 2d 245, 963 P.2d 436 (1998).

118. Under facts, storage shed previously used as residence considered a dwelling under state burglary statute. Herrick v. State, 25 Kan. App. 2d 472, 965 P.2d 844 (1998).

119. Lean-to open on one side and attached to structure for use as a carport is not "other structure" within purview of burglary statute. State v. Moler, 269 Kan. 362, 2 P.3d 773 (2000).

120. K-Mart employee's taking of items from nonpublic storeroom is not burglary; penal statutes are strictly construed in favor of accused. State v. Hall, 270 Kan. 194, 14 P.3d 404 (2000).

121. Defendant may be charged with burglary for entering a motor vehicle with intent to commit theft of vehicle. State v. Jones, 29 Kan. App. 2d 936, 34 P.3d 82 (2001).

122. Error for court to dismiss charges, over objection of prosecutor, prior to end of term of diversion agreement. State v. Hurla, 274 Kan. 725, 56 P.3d 252 (2002).

123. Burglary conviction reversed in light of jury's question to trial court and faulty jury instruction. State v. McKissack, 283 Kan. 721, 734, 156 P.3d 1249 (2007).

124. Burglary statute does not require that dwelling be enclosed. State v. Storey, 37 Kan. App. 2d 555, 556, 557, 558, 154 P.3d 1148 (2007).

125. Burglary in unfinished medical center upheld; "building" and "dwelling" construed. State v. Storey, 286 Kan. 7, 9, 10, 14 to 16, 18, 179 P.3d 1137 (2008).

126. Conviction hereunder reversed, unlawful arrest and search; confession not sufficiently attenuated from unlawful conduct of law enforcement. State v. Wagner, 39 Kan. App. 2d 279, 285, 179 P.3d 1149 (2008).

127. Presence of a person in a structure at any time during a burglary constitutes aggravated burglary. State v. May, 39 Kan. App. 2d 990, 994, 996, 186 P.3d 847 (2008).

128. Motion to withdraw burglary plea; conflict of interest with defense counsel; new counsel required. State v. Toney, 39 Kan. App. 2d 1036, 1037, 187 P.3d 138 (2008).

129. Cited; use of nonstatutory aggravating factors to impose an upward durational departure does not violate due process. State v. Snow, 40 Kan. App. 2d 747, 754, 195 P.3d 282 (2008).

130. Cited; so long as juvenile's actions were not accidental or involuntary, juvenile possessed the required culpable intent. In re D.A., 40 Kan. App. 2d 878, 893, 197 P.3d 849 (2008).

131. Felony murder convictions affirmed; discussion of unanimity instructions; alternative means cases and multiple acts cases. State v. Dixon, 289 Kan. 46, 209 P.3d 675 (2009).

132. Cited in finding K.S.A. 21-3435 creates a specific intent crime. State v. Richardson, 289 Kan. 118, 209 P.3d 696 (2009).

133. Cited as crime requiring a specific intent element. In re C.P.W. 289 Kan. 448, 213 P.3d 413 (2009).

134. Conviction under K.S.A. 21-4202(a)(2) reversed; prior burglary conviction not proven to be burglary of a dwelling. State v. Roose, 41 Kan. App. 2d 435, 203 P.3d 18 (2009).

135. Conviction hereunder reversed based on violation of order in limine, a Doyle v. Ohio violation and improper jury instruction. State v. Pruitt, 42 Kan. App. 2d 166, 211 P.3d 166 (2009).

136. Kansas burglary statute makes no reference to entry upon land while the criminal trespass statute does. City of Wichita v. Bannon, 42 Kan. App. 2d 196, 209 P.3d 207 (2009).

137. Although defendant pleaded guilty to a charging document that narrowed the burglary charges to the generic limit, his past Kansas burglary conviction could be characterized as a violent felony for sentencing enhancement purposes. U.S. v. Ridens, 792 F.3d 1270, 1274 (10 th Cir. 2015).

138. Burglary statute in effect at the time defendant committed burglaries in 1978 did not contain the dwelling element required to classify the crime as a person felony; the sentencing court violated defendant's constitutional right by finding that the four 1978 burglaries involved a dwelling. State v. Vasquez, 52 Kan. App. 2d 708, 717-18, 371 P.3d 946 (2016).

139. When a statute imposes a specific intent requirement, an out-of-state statute's general intent requirement to commit any crime is too broad to qualify as a comparable offense. State v. Wetrich, 307 Kan. 552, 563, 412 P.3d 984 (2018).


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