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22-4620. Electronic recording of certain felony custodial interrogations; law enforcement policies, requirements; available to public. (a) All law enforcement agencies in this state shall adopt a detailed, written policy requiring electronic recording of any custodial interrogation conducted at a place of detention.

(b) All local law enforcement agencies in this state shall collaborate with the county or district attorney in the appropriate jurisdiction regarding the contents of written policies required by this section.

(c) Policies adopted pursuant to this section shall be made available to all officers of such agency and shall be available for public inspection during normal business hours.

(d) Policies adopted pursuant to this section shall be implemented by all Kansas law enforcement agencies on or before July 1, 2018.

(e) Policies adopted pursuant to this section shall include the following:

(1) A requirement that an electronic recording shall be made of an entire custodial interrogation at a place of detention when the interrogation concerns a homicide or a felony sex offense;

(2) a requirement that if the defendant elects to make or sign a written statement during the course of a custodial interrogation concerning a homicide or a felony sex offense, the making and signing of the statement shall be electronically recorded;

(3) a statement of exceptions to the requirement to electronically record custodial interrogations, including, but not limited to:

(A) An equipment malfunction preventing electronic recording of the interrogation in its entirety, and replacement equipment is not immediately available;

(B) the officer, in good faith, fails to record the interrogation because the officer inadvertently fails to operate the recording equipment properly, or without the officer's knowledge the recording equipment malfunctions or stops recording;

(C) the suspect affirmatively asserts the desire to speak with officers without being recorded;

(D) multiple interrogations are taking place, exceeding the available electronic recording capacity;

(E) the statement is made spontaneously and not in response to an interrogation question;

(F) the statement is made during questioning that is routinely asked during the processing of an arrest of a suspect;

(G) the statement is made at a time when the officer is unaware of the suspect's involvement in an offense covered by the policy;

(H) exigent circumstances make recording impractical;

(I) at the time of the interrogation, the officer, in good faith, is unaware of the type of offense involved; and

(J) the recording is damaged or destroyed, without bad faith on the part of any person or entity in control of the recording; and

(4) requirements pertaining to the retention and storage requirements of the electronic recording.

(f) (1) During trial, the officer may be questioned pursuant to the rules of evidence regarding any violation of the policies adopted pursuant to this section.

(2) Lack of an electronic recording shall not be the sole basis for suppression of the interrogation or confession.

(g) Every electronic recording of any statement as required by this section shall be confidential and exempt from the Kansas open records act in accordance with K.S.A. 45-229, and amendments thereto. The provisions of this subsection shall expire on July 1, 2022, unless the legislature reviews and reenacts this provision pursuant to K.S.A. 45-229, and amendments thereto, prior to July 1, 2022.

(h) The following words and phrases, as used in this section, are defined as follows:

(1) "Custodial interrogation" means questioning of a person to whom warnings given pursuant to Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966), are required to be given;

(2) "place of detention" means a fixed location under the control of a Kansas law enforcement agency where individuals are questioned about alleged crimes; and

(3) "electronic recording" means audio or audiovisual recording. An audiovisual recording is preferred.

(i) This section shall take effect on and after July 1, 2017.

History: L. 2017, ch. 62, ยง 1; May 18.


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