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60-405. Effect of erroneous exclusion of evidence. A verdict or finding shall not be set aside, nor shall the judgment or decision based thereon be reversed, by reason of the erroneous exclusion of evidence unless it appears of record that the proponent of the evidence either made known the substance of the evidence in a form and by a method approved by the judge, or indicated the substance of the expected evidence by questions indicating the desired answers.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-405; January 1, 1964.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

"Objections," Laurence Rose, 2 J.K.T.L.A. No. 3, 18, 19 (1978).

"Motion in Limine," Laurence Rose, 3 J.K.T.L.A. No. 4, 17, 18 (1980).

"Survey of Kansas Law: Evidence," Mark M. Dobson, 32 K.L.R. 625 (1984).

"Warning: Failure to Counter an Objection may be Hazardous to Your Case," Vol. IX, No. 2, J.K.T.L.A. 23 (1985).

"Recent Decisions Affecting the Trial of Cases," Ruth M. Benien, J.K.T.L.A. Vol. XVI, No. 3, 18, 19 (1993).

Survey of Recent Cases, 43 K.L.R. 999 (1995).

"An ounce of Prevention...," Robert W. Parnacott, 68 J.K.B.A. No. 10, 36 (1999).

"Preserving the Record in Criminal Law Cases—The Offer of Proof," Stephen M. Joseph, J.K.T.L.A. Vol. XXIII, No. 2, 16 (1999).

"The First Line of Defense: A Practitioner's Guide to Motions in Limine," William J. Pauzauskie, J.K.T.L.A. Vol. XXIV, No. 3, 8 (2001).

CASE ANNOTATIONS

1. Mentioned in upholding the exclusion of proffered evidence in first degree robbery trial. State v. Henderson, 205 K. 231, 239, 468 P.2d 136.

2. Cited in reversing conviction of county attorney for criminal contempt. In re Sanborn, 208 K. 4, 14, 490 P.2d 598.

3. Applied; no effort made to make known substance of evidence expected to be presented. Salem v. Salem, 214 K. 828, 832, 522 P.2d 336.

4. Applied; exclusion of evidence of communications relevant to issue in debt harassment case not harmless. Dawson v. Associates Financial Services Co., 215 K. 814, 823, 529 P.2d 104.

5. Failure to comply with section and 60-243(c); appellate review on excluded evidence not authorized. State v. Nix, 215 K. 880, 884, 529 P.2d 147.

6. Error to exclude reputation and character evidence on issue of aggressor; damage action for assault and battery. Carrick v. McFadden, 216 K. 683, 687, 688, 533 P.2d 1249.

7. Ruling excluding evidence not reviewable unless substance of evidence made known. Querry v. Montgomery Ward & Co., Inc., 217 K. 104, 112, 535 P.2d 928.

8. Mentioned in upholding trial court's denial of motion regarding results of polygraph examination. State v. Watkins, 219 K. 81, 85, 547 P.2d 810.

9. Substantial competent evidence; verdict not overturned. Baker v. Ratzlaff, 1 K.A.2d 285, 289, 564 P.2d 153.

10. Cited in regard to the effect of erroneous exclusion of evidence. Manley v. Rings, 222 K. 258, 262, 564 P.2d 482.

11. Exclusion of evidence of independent crime not error; murder conviction affirmed. State v. Nemechek, 223 K. 766, 770, 576 P.2d 682.

12. Applied in affirming trial court's sustaining of immateriality objection. Henderson v. Hassur, 225 K. 678, 691, 594 P.2d 650.

13. Applied; substance of evidence made known to trial court; appeal preserved. State v. Quick, 226 K. 308, 314, 597 P.2d 1108.

14. Cited; no error by trial court in excluding testimony not relevant in securities fraud case. State v. Puckett, 6 K.A.2d 688, 695, 634 P.2d 144 (1981).

15. Testimony of expert witness; nurse would be an expert on bedsores. Mellies v. National Heritage, Inc., 6 K.A.2d 910, 920, 636 P.2d 215 (1981).

16. Not applicable to appeal based on denial of standing to participate in juvenile transfer hearing. In re Shelton, 8 K.A.2d 226, 231, 654 P.2d 487 (1982).

17. When appellant did not make proffer of excluded evidence during trial, no irreversible error in such exclusion. Kearney v. Kansas Public Service Co., 233 K. 492, 499, 665 P.2d 757 (1983).

18. Error to exclude evidence of prior carelessness of defendant's employee when offered to show negligence in supervision. McGraw v. Sanders Co. Plumbing & Heating, Inc., 233 K. 766, 770, 667 P.2d 289 (1983).

19. Cited; violation of sequestration order without knowledge or connivance of defendant insufficient reason to exclude alibi witness. State v. Hill, 10 K.A.2d 607, 609, 706 P.2d 472 (1985).

20. When trial court rules expert testimony is inadmissible, it is error to refuse a proffer of that testimony into the record. State v. Hodges, 241 K. 183, 192, 734 P.2d 1161 (1987).

21. Hearing, evidence and findings necessary to support admissibility of hearsay statements under 60-460(dd) examined. In re M.O., 13 K.A.2d 381, 383, 770 P.2d 856 (1989).

22. Applicability of rape shield statute (21-3525) where record does not show what actual testimony would be examined. State v. Gonzales, 245 K. 691, 699, 783 P.2d 1239 (1989).

23. Exclusion of relevant evidence as error rather than abuse of discretion stated in concurring opinion. State v. Osby, 246 K. 621, 633, 793 P.2d 243 (1990).

24. Limitations on evidence of defendant's drug use examined. State v. Hall, 246 K. 728, 746, 793 P.2d 737 (1990).

25. Standard for satisfactory proffer of evidence. Marshall v. Mayflower Transit, Inc., 249 K. 620, 623, 822 P.2d 591 (1991).

26. Exclusion of evidence; complaining party must have proffered the excluded evidence. Enlow v. Sears, Roebuck & Co., 249 K. 732, 733, 741, 822 P.2d 617 (1991).

27. Cited; admission of documents not previously disclosed is discretionary with trial court. New Dimensions Products, Inc. v. Flambeau Corp., 17 K.A.2d 852, 861, 844 P.2d 768 (1993).

28. Trial court's refusal to allow testimony of three unendorsed defense witnesses examined. State v. Coleman, 253 K. 335, 344, 856 P.2d 121 (1993).

29. Cited; whether defendant was denied right of confrontation when court restricted defense cross-examination of rebuttal witness examined. State v. Coleman, 19 K.A.2d 412, 416, 870 P.2d 695 (1994).

30. Whether defendant asserting lack of opportunity to present mitigation evidence before sentencing made proffer of contemplated evidence examined. State v. Borders, 255 K. 871, 880, 879 P.2d 620 (1994).

31. Whether prejudice to defendant's substantial rights must be shown to constitute reversible error for allocution violations examined. State v. Duke, 256 K. 703, 727, 887 P.2d 110 (1994).

32. Whether judge's limitations on defendant's testimony violated defendant's right to present a defense examined. State v. Gibbons, 256 K. 951, 959, 889 P.2d 772 (1995).

33. Trial judge's threat of holding defense counsel in contempt not so prejudicial as to require new trial. State v. Sherrer, 259 K. 332, 338, 912 P.2d 747 (1996).

34. Trial court's denial of allocution not so prejudicial as to require reversal. State v. Bowen, 259 K. 798, 806, 915 P.2d 120 (1996).

35. Cited; failure to make a proffer of excluded evidence precludes appellate review. State v. Horn, 40 K.A.2d 687, 706, 196 P.3d 379 (2008).

36. Errors in limine and evidentiary rulings and orders affected the outcome of the trial and denied substantial justice for a party. National Bank of Andover v. Kansas Bankers Surety Co., 290 K. 247, 225 P.3d 707 (2010).

37. Exclusion of evidence on victim's family viewing inappropriate websites not error. State v. Garza, 290 K. 1021, 236 P.3d 501 (2010).

38. No formal offer of proof in the form of questions and answers is required. In re Acquisition of Property by Eminent Domain, 299 K. 37, 320 P.3d 955 (2014).


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