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60-407. General abolition of disqualifications and privileges of witnesses, and of exclusionary rules. Except as otherwise provided by statute (a) every person is qualified to be a witness, and (b) no person has a privilege to refuse to be a witness, and (c) no person is disqualified to testify to any matter, and (d) no person has a privilege to refuse to disclose any matter or to produce any object or writing, and (e) no person has a privilege that another shall not be a witness or shall not disclose any matter or shall not produce any object or writing, and (f) all relevant evidence is admissible.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-407; January 1, 1964.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

Objecting party or privilege claimant must state exclusionary rule, "Highlights of the Kansas Code of Civil Procedure (1963)," Spencer A. Gard, 2 W.L.J. 199, 201 (1962).

Mentioned as affecting K.S.A. 60-427 in "The Physician-Patient Privilege Under the New Code," Steven P. Flood, 33 J.B.A.K. 100 (1964).

Survey of law of evidence, Spencer A. Gard, 12 K.L.R. 239, 240 (1963).

Quoted and discussed with respect to husband-wife privilege, Ross R. Freeman, 6 W.L.J. 144, 155, 156 (1966).

Section cited as "keystone" of rules of evidence, Spencer A. Gard, 16 K.L.R. 125, 135 (1967).

Not to be construed so literally as to stifle judicial discretion, "Other Vices, Other Crimes: An Evidentiary Dilemma," M. C. Slough, 20 K.L.R. 411, 415, 429 (1972).

Comment concerning use of evidence of prior convictions, Wendell F. Cowan, Jr., 12 W.L.J. 111, 113 (1972).

"The Psychotherapists' Privilege," Craig Kennedy, 12 W.L.J. 297, 305 (1973).

"Other Vices, Other Crimes: K.S.A. 60-455 Revisited," M. C. Slough, 26 K.L.R. 161, 173 (1978).

Conspiracy law, 26 K.L.R. 571, 589 (1978).

"Impeaching Civil Verdicts: Juror Statements as Prejudicial Misconduct," James M. Concannon, 52 J.K.B.A. 201, 202 (1983).

"Evidence: Settlement Offers Not Relevant For Mitigating Punitive Damages," James B. Albertson, 23 W.L.J. 452, 457 (1984).

"The Psychologist-Patient Privilege: Time for a Change in Kansas, or is it all in our Heads?" Boyd Isherwood, 37 W.L.J. 659 (1998).

"Evidence for the family lawyer: Intrafamily wiretapping, the Fifth Amendment and other selected topics," Steve Leben, 68 J.K.B.A. No. 3, 24 (1999).

"The Kansas Joint-Defense Privilege: A Cigarette Smokescreen," Derek S. Casey, J.K.T.L.A. Vol. XXII, No. 6, 16, 18 (1999).

"An ounce of Prevention...," Robert W. Parnacott, 68 J.K.B.A. No. 10, 36 (1999).

"The Kansas Joint-Defense Privilege: A Cigarette Smokescreen," Derek S. Casey, J.K.T.L.A. Vol. XXII, No. 6, 16 (1999).

Attorney General's Opinions:

Driving under influence; "per se" violation. 85-133.

CASE ANNOTATIONS

1. Preexisting disqualifications, privileges and other exclusionary rules abolished; evidence only requirement for admissibility hereunder; section limited by K.S.A. 60-417. State v. Poulos, 196 K. 253, 263, 411 P.2d 694.

2. Considered; "privilege" within meaning of discovery statutes is as it exists in law of evidence; statements made to claims adjuster not privileged. Alseike v. Miller, 196 K. 547, 558, 412 P.2d 1007.

3. Evidence not excluded because it is self-serving. Thompson v. Norman, 198 K. 436, 441, 424 P.2d 593.

4. Witness may testify as to purchase price of neighboring tracts of land in condemnation proceeding; section abolishes privileges and exclusionary rules. City of Wichita v. Jennings, 199 K. 621, 623, 625, 433 P.2d 351.

5. Applied; action to set aside transfer of property; findings supported by evidence. In re Estate of Carlson, 201 K. 635, 646, 443 P.2d 673.

6. Administrative officer cannot be questioned as to precise factual basis of his findings or conclusions, or as to the precise factual details which influenced his findings or conclusions. Burton v. Jones, 202 K. 435, 438, 449 P.2d 551.

7. Applied in testing reasonableness of ordinance under 12-712; evidence; burden of proof. Keeney v. City of Overland Park, 203 K. 389, 394, 454 P.2d 456.

8. Mentioned as being limited by 60-417. State v. Jones, 204 K. 719, 726, 466 P.2d 283.

9. Cited in discussing cross-examination of defendant's character witness; preliminary inquiry in absence of jury required, when. State v. Hinton, 206 K. 500, 508, 479 P.2d 910.

10. Mentioned in determining rights of condemner in eminent domain proceeding (dissenting opinion). City of Bonner Springs v. Coleman, 206 K. 689, 698, 481 P.2d 950.

11. All evidence admissible if relevant; abolishes prior exclusionary rules. State Highway Commission v. Lee, 207 K. 284, 290, 485 P.2d 310.

12. Provision that all relevant evidence is admissible does not extend an open invitation to irrelevance (dissenting opinion). State Highway Commission v. Lee, 207 K. 284, 313, 485 P.2d 310.

13. Evidence relating to membership in an organization held relevant to show concerted or group action. State v. Pierce, et al., 208 K. 19, 29, 490 P.2d 584.

14. Subsection (f) cited; evidence of past crimes held inadmissible as not within any exception to 60-455. State v. Davis, 213 K. 54, 56, 515 P.2d 802.

15. Applied; appellate review foreclosed; conviction of crimes upheld. State v. James, 217 K. 96, 98, 535 P.2d 991.

16. Defendant entitled to compulsory process to establish complainant's competency and to subpoena of his medical records. State v. Humphrey, 217 K. 352, 362, 537 P.2d 155.

17. Applied; contention of incompetency rejected; conflicting statements of defendant as to whereabouts admissible. State v. Donahue, 218 K. 351, 355, 543 P.2d 962.

18. Applied; trial court did not abuse discretion in excluding evidence; action on insurance policies proving coverage for uninsured motorists. Van Hoozer v. Farmers Insurance Exchange, 219 K. 595, 613, 549 P.2d 1354.

19. Applied; evidence of collateral facts in criminal prosecution sufficiently relevant; admissible; discretion. State v. Baker, 219 K. 854, 858, 549 P.2d 911.

20. Testimony of witness considered and held relevant; admissible. State v. Rueckert, 221 K. 727, 728, 738, 561 P.2d 850.

21. Evidence relevant; admissible. Farmers Ins. Exchange v. Schropp, 222 K. 612, 624, 567 P.2d 1359.

22. Denial of motion to suppress testimony upheld; duty as witness understood. State v. Smallwood, 223 K. 320, 327, 574 P.2d 1361.

23. Applied; admission of evidence of physician violated physician-patient privilege; conviction under 8-1567 reversed. State v. George, 223 K. 507, 508, 575 P.2d 511.

24. Applied; confessions of codefendants were inconsistent; not hearsay; admissible. State v. White & Stewart, 225 K. 87, 95, 587 P.2d 1259.

25. Judgment reversed; trial court erred in not issuing bench warrant for a minor who was material witness. State v. Jones, 226 K. 503, 508, 601 P.2d 1135.

26. Conviction of second degree murder affirmed; all relevant evidence is admissible. State v. Egbert, 227 K. 266, 269, 606 P.2d 1022.

27. Subsections (d), (e), (f) mentioned in reversal of conviction for sale of marijuana where court refused to compel disclosure of informant's identity. State v. Knox, 4 K.A.2d 87, 93, 603 P.2d 199.

28. Cited; monetary threshold under 40-3117; reasonableness and necessity of medical bills are jury questions. Cansler v. Harrington, 231 K. 66, 69, 643 P.2d 110 (1982).

29. Evidence that blood test failed to exclude alleged father as possible father not admissible in paternity action. State ex rel. Hausner v. Blackman, 7 K.A.2d 693, 698, 648 P.2d 249 (1982).

30. Evidence of market value of gas considered in construing royalty clause in gas lease. Holmes v. Kewanee Oil Co., 233 K. 544, 552, 664 P.2d 1335 (1983).

31. Proffer of offer of settlement solely for limited purpose of mitigation for punitive damages was not relevant and not admissible. Ettus v. Orkin Exterminating Co., 233 K. 555, 567, 665 P.2d 730 (1983).

32. Subsection (f) cited in holding error to show benefits received by plaintiff from another source in wrongful death action. Allman v. Holleman, 233 K. 781, 788, 667 P.2d 296 (1983).

33. Witness not prohibited from testifying simply because of age. State v. Thrasher, 233 K. 1016, 1018, 666 P.2d 722 (1983).

34. State agency regulations cannot limit scope of discoverable matter. Wesley Medical Center v. Clark, 234 K. 13, 18, 19, 669 P.2d 209 (1983).

35. Nontestimonial statement in physician's office records not improperly excluded where made five years before automobile accident. Doty v. Wells, 9 K.A.2d 378, 379, 380, 682 P.2d 672 (1984).

36. Cited in holding communication between spouses in presence of or overheard by others not privileged; privilege limited to communications seeking to transmit information. State v. Newman, 235 K. 29, 39, 680 P.2d 257 (1984).

37. Cited in holding blood test from arrested driver, taken under appropriate conditions, admissible in civil action. Divine v. Groshong, 235 K. 127, 130, 679 P.2d 700 (1984).

38. No abuse of discretion in admitting written contract for care of aged mother provided by child. In re Estate of Kreie, 235 K. 143, 149, 679 P.2d 712 (1984).

39. KCC chairman may relax rules of evidence when public interest served and facts more easily ascertained. In re Application of Southwestern Bell Tel. Co., 9 K.A.2d 525, 526, 539, 685 P.2d 304 (1984).

40. Evidence of nature of workers' compensation relationship and effect has no bearing on fault and allocation thereof. Anderson v. National Carriers, Inc., 10 K.A.2d 203, 209, 695 P.2d 1293 (1985).

41. Introduction of alleged murder weapon in murder case (21-3401) based on circumstantial evidence held proper. State v. Yarrington, 238 K. 141, 145, 708 P.2d 524 (1985).

42. Evidence of other crimes or civil wrongs (60-455) states exception to general rule that all relevant evidence is admissible. State v. Perrigo, 10 K.A.2d 651, 708 P.2d 987 (1985).

43. Cited; exclusion of inconsistent statement in newspaper article as hearsay examined. State v. Hunter, 241 K. 629, 637, 740 P.2d 559 (1987).

44. Cited; plaintiff's burden in product liability case where needle believed to be in loaf of bread examined. Hazelton v. Safeway Stores, Inc., 12 K.A.2d 377, 385, 745 P.2d 309 (1987).

45. Cited; statutory requirement of competence to testify examined; finding witness unable or unwilling to abide by oath not permissible basis. Jones v. Bordman, 243 K. 444, 457, 759 P.2d 953 (1988).

46. Cited; qualification as witness of individual under age 21 who observed events while acting as police officer examined. State v. Winkel, 243 K. 570, 572, 757 P.2d 318 (1988).

47. Witness as presumed competent regardless of young age noted; establishing incompetency rests with challenger. State v. Colwell, 246 K. 382, 387, 790 P.2d 430 (1990).

48. Finding that child-victim was unavailable as a witness (60-460) one year before trial as error determined. State v. McClanahan, 14 K.A.2d 410, 792 P.2d 355 (1990).

49. Exclusion of relevant evidence as error rather than abuse of discretion stated in concurring opinion. State v. Osby, 246 K. 621, 633, 793 P.2d 243 (1990).

50. Exclusion from jury room of evidence admitted at trial held harmless error. Morgan v. Abay, 252 K. 853, 857, 850 P.2d 840 (1993).

51. Whether conviction and sentencing of codefendant removed 5 th Amendment protection for codefendant's testimony in defendant's trial examined. State v. Johnson-Howell, 255 K. 928, 939, 881 P.2d 1288 (1994).

52. Whether judge used proper procedures to determine whether autistic witness using facilitated communication was validly communicating examined. State v. Warden, 257 K. 94, 120, 891 P.2d 1074 (1994).

53. Whether admission of financial record exhibits was improper because inadequate foundation laid examined. Kampschroeder v. Kampschroeder, 20 K.A.2d 361, 367, 887 P.2d 1152 (1995).

54. Probative value of photographs of deceased victim outweighed possible prejudice to defendant. State v. Hickles, 261 K. 74, 85, 929 P.2d 141 (1996).

55. Under facts, condemnor may amend eminent domain petition to correct incorrect legal description of landowner's easements. Landau Investment Co. v. City of Overland Park, 261 K. 394, 407, 930 P.2d 1065 (1997).

56. Probative value of victim's autopsy photographs outweighed prejudicial value. State v. Clark, 261 K. 460, 477, 931 P.2d 664 (1997).

57. Rights, under constitutions of the United States and state of Kansas, of persons called as witnesses in inquisitions. In re Investigation into Homicide of T.H., 23 K.A.2d 471, 474, 932 P.2d 1023 (1997).

58. Admission of relevant autopsy photographs were not prejudicial to rights of defendant. State v. Smallwood, 264 K. 69, 84, 955 P.2d 1209 (1998).

59. Evidence of defendant's conviction in previous trial for crimes related to charged crime properly excluded as irrelevant. State v. Mims, 264 K. 506, 512, 956 P.2d 1337 (1998).

60. No privilege against testifying in father-son relationship. Bond v. Albin, 29 K.A.2d 262, 28 P.3d 394 (2000).

61. Failure of trial court to fully evaluate relevant evidence in order to determine admissibility of defendant's third-party evidence was reversible error. State v. Marsh, 278 K. 520, 533, 102 P.3d 445 (2004).

62. Witnesses testimony not relevant to proving victim's state of mind at time of death. State v. Baker, 281 K. 997, 1009, 135 P.3d 1098 (2006).

63. 911 recording captured defendant's demeanor at the time of the events, documented events and the duration of the incident, and was highly probative with respect to element of premeditation. State v. Reed, 282 K. 272, 282, 144 P.3d 677 (2006).

64. Evidence not relevant to material facts. State v. Gaither, 283 K. 671, 689, 156 P.3d 602 (2007).

65. Relevancy discussed; court has discretion to exclude relevant evidence outweighed by prejudicial effect. State v. Scott-Herring, 284 K. 172, 176, 159 P.3d 1028 (2007).

66. Unless prohibited by statute, constitution or court decision, all relevant evidence is admissible. City of Mission Hills v. Sexton, 284 K. 414, 429, 160 P.3d 812 (2007).

67. Eminent domain proceeding; all relevant evidence is admissible; exceptions. Miller v. Glacier Development Co., 284 K. 476, 486, 497, 161 P.3d 730 (2007).

68. Admissibility of photographs discussed; harmless error found in admitting certain photographs. State v. Miller, 284 K. 682, 690, 703, 163 P.3d 267 (2007).

69. Evidence of prior crimes permitted to show intent and identity in subsequent prosecution. State v. Garcia, 285 K. 1, 169 P.3d 1069 (2007).

70. Mentioned in case involving interlocutory appeal not authorized by K.S.A. 22-3603, speedy trial requirement violated; case dismissed. State v. Mitchell, 285 K. 1070, 1074, 179 P.3d 394 (2008).

71. Cited; alleged error in admitting evidence of drug use and addiction; no limiting instruction was error. State v. Carapezza, 286 K. 992, 997, 191 P.3d 256 (2008).

72. Cited; evidence of defendant's drug use found probative of motive; lack of limiting instruction erroneous but harmless. State v. Hughes, 286 K. 1010, 1020, 191 P.3d 268 (2008).

73. Evidence found to be too remote and no connection between evidence and alleged criminal act. State v. Huntley, 39 K.A.2d 180, 191, 177 P.3d 994 (2008).

74. When adequacy of the legal basis for district court's decision at issue, de novo standard applies. State v. Smith, 39 K.A.2d 204, 213, 178 P.3d 672 (2008).

75. Mentioned; police dispatch description of suspect from anonymous caller not offered to prove truth of matter, not hearsay. State v. Barney, 39 K.A.2d 540, 545, 185 P.3d 277 (2008).

76. No error in admitting criminal history evidence in commitment proceeding under the Kansas sexually violent predator act. In re Care and Treatment of Colt, 39 K.A.2d 643, 648, 183 P.3d 4 (2008).

77. Cited; no error in admitting evidence of sex crimes in sentencing proceeding; evidence relevant to fiduciary relationship. State v. Horn, 40 K.A.2d 687, 699, 196 P.3d 379 (2008).

78. No error in admission of evidence of prior bad acts or photos of victim. State v. Riojas, 288 K. 379, 204 P.3d 578 (2009).


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