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60-441. Evidence to test a verdict or indictment. Upon an inquiry as to the validity of a verdict or an indictment no evidence shall be received to show the effect of any statement, conduct, event or condition upon the mind of a juror as influencing him or her to assent to or dissent from the verdict or indictment or concerning the mental processes by which it was determined.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-441; January 1, 1964.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

Section did not change rules of evidence existing prior to the adoption of the code, Spencer A. Gard, 16 K.L.R. 125, 134 (1967).

Comment concerning jury misconduct, John O. Martin, 10 W.L.J. 493, 494 (1971).

"Impeaching Civil Verdicts: Juror Statements as Prejudicial Misconduct," James M. Concannon, 52 J.K.B.A. 201, 210, 211 (1983).

"Recent Development in Kansas Civil Procedure," E. Elinor P. Schroeder, 32 K.L.R. 515, 535, 536, 537, 538 (1984).

Criminal Procedure Survey, 55 K.L.R. 797 (2007).

CASE ANNOTATIONS

1. Testimony of jurors as challenge to verdict considered. Kincaid v. Wade, 196 K. 174, 180, 410 P.2d 333.

2. Wild expression of opinion in jury room no basis for retrial. Brown v. Hardin, 197 K. 517, 523, 419 P.2d 912.

3. Applied; rule prevents inquiry into mental processes of jurors and to methods by which verdict reached. State v. Schroeder, 201 K. 811, 822, 443 P.2d 284.

4. Juror may not impeach verdict in which he himself joined by testifying at 60-1507 proceeding as to reasoning employed by jury in reaching its decision or the influences on mental processes of jury in reaching its verdict. Ingram v. State, 204 K. 836, 837, 465 P.2d 925.

5. Conviction of forcible rape upheld; evidence as to mental process by which jury arrived at verdict of guilty properly excluded. State v. Morgan, 207 K. 581, 582, 485 P.2d 1371.

6. Applied; attempt to determine considerations influencing jury during deliberations rejected. State v. Blocker, 211 K. 185, 196, 505 P.2d 1099.

7. Jury foreman's affidavit and testimony impeaching his verdict on motion for new trial improper; objections should have been sustained. Hogue v. Kansas Power & Light Co., 212 K. 339, 346, 510 P.2d 1308.

8. Applied; affidavit of juror indicating instructions not clear attempt to impeach verdict. Smith v. Union Pacific Railroad Co., 214 K. 128, 135, 519 P.2d 1101.

9. Instruction regarding failure of defendant to testify not reversible error. State v. Myers, 215 K. 600, 602, 603, 527 P.2d 1053.

10. Section proscribes interrogation of jurors to determine if they were prejudiced by attorney's closing argument. State v. Steger, 216 K. 534, 536, 532 P.2d 1115.

11. Applied; juror misconduct held not reversible error; judicial discretion. State v. Arney, 218 K. 369, 372, 544 P.2d 334.

12. Applied in affirming conviction for second degree murder; matters in concern not extrinsic to verdict. State v. Childers, 222 K. 32, 39, 563 P.2d 999.

13. Proffered testimony would have been inadmissible under section. Gannaway v. Missouri-Kansas-Texas Rld. Co., 2 K.A.2d 81, 84, 575 P.2d 566.

14. Section cited; trial court abused discretion not allowing counsel to interview jurors. State v. McDonald, 222 K. 494, 496, 565 P.2d 267.

15. Refusal to allow recall of jurors to question their reasoning employed in reaching verdict upheld. State v. Gilder, 223 K. 220, 229, 574 P.2d 196.

16. Affidavit of juror impeaching his verdict inadmissible; no extrinsic misconduct, physical facts or occurrences within or without jury room involved. Crowley v. Ottken, 224 K. 27, 577 P.2d 1172.

17. Jury's use of dictionary not reversible error. State v. Duncan, 3 K.A.2d 271, 275, 593 P.2d 427.

18. Evidence of juror statement concerning veracity of defendant held as offered for purpose of examining mental process by which juror reached verdict. State v. Norris, 226 K. 90, 94, 595 P.2d 1110.

19. Cited; errors in the form of a verdict may not be corrected through impeachment of such verdict; judgment reversed. Traylor v. Wachter, 227 K. 221, 224, 607 P.2d 1094.

20. Cited; suit brought under comparative negligence law; jurors guilty of misconduct by considering the question of fault of plaintiff and by increasing actual damages to allow for attorney fees; judgment reversed. Verren v. City of Pittsburg, 227 K. 259, 260, 261, 265, 607 P.2d 36.

21. Trial court refusal to permit defendant's counsel in criminal case to interview jurors held abuse of discretion. State v. Griffin, 3 K.A.2d 443, 596 P.2d 185.

22. Judgment corrected to conform with established true verdict. Traylor v. Wachter, 3 K.A.2d 536, 542, 598 P.2d 1061.

23. Conviction of first degree murder upheld; jurors questioned about effect of a threat; questioning by judge held proper. State v. Fenton, 228 K. 658, 665, 666, 620 P.2d 813.

24. Case involving broken water main; extensive discussion of res ipsa loquitur; elements of juror misconduct incidental thereto. Arnold Associates, Inc. v. City of Wichita, 5 K.A.2d 301, 319, 615 P.2d 814.

25. Inquiry into method of reaching verdict proper where alleged that prohibited quotient method or averaging of jurors' verdicts used. Johnson v. Haupt, 5 K.A.2d 682, 685, 623 P.2d 537.

26. Evidence that jury's award included attorney fees and taxes held insufficient to establish misconduct. Cornejo v. Probst, 6 K.A.2d 529, 532, 533, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 630 P.2d 1202 (1981).

27. No error by trial court in refusing to permit defendant to subpoena jurors. State v. Grauerholz, 232 K. 221, 228, 654 P.2d 395 (1982).

28. Jury reversed order of procedure laid out in trial court's instructions; goes to mental processes of the jury and is not alone sufficient to impeach the verdict. Merando v. A.T. & S.F. Rly. Co., 232 K. 404, 410, 656 P.2d 154 (1983).

29. Post-trial interview of juror by defense counsel no basis for new trial; affidavit inadmissible as delving into juror's mind. State v. Mitchell, 234 K. 185, 190, 672 P.2d 1 (1983).

30. Conscious conspiracy to disregard instructions is jury misconduct sufficient for new trial. City of Ottawa v. Heathman, 236 K. 417, 425, 690 P.2d 1375 (1984).

31. Juror subpoenas properly quashed where only evidence to be feared from examination precluded hereby. State v. Lovely, 237 K. 838, 842, 703 P.2d 828 (1985).

32. Cited; juror questioning during trial, testimony at new trial hearing, refusal to allow interview of whole panel examined. State v. Ruebke, 240 K. 493, 512, 731 P.2d 842 (1987).

33. Statement by juror outside courtroom as raising presumption of partiality, prosecutor's failure to report statement examined. State v. Cady, 248 K. 743, 755, 811 P.2d 1143 (1991).

34. Jury consideration of damages with liability, question of mental processes of jury raised and examined. Miller v. Zep Mfg. Co., 249 K. 34, 47, 815 P.2d 506 (1991).

35. Prohibition against impeachment of verdict inapplicable when right to fair trial violated by jury misconduct. Saucedo v. Winger, 252 K. 718, 728, 729, 850 P.2d 908 (1993).

36. Jury instructions regarding fault examined where plaintiffs served dishwashing liquid rather than similar-looking alcoholic beverage. Cott v. Peppermint Twist Mgt. Co., 253 K. 452, 476, 856 P.2d 906 (1993).

37. Whether juror's use of dictionary to look up "reasonable" is ground for granting a new trial examined. State v. Goseland, 256 K. 729, 736, 887 P.2d 1109 (1994).

38. Denial of motion for new trial based on evidence of juror's mental process in determining verdict upheld. State v. Kaiser, 260 K. 235, 250, 918 P.2d 629 (1996).

39. Alleged jury misconduct was an improper attempt to impeach the verdict by juror testimony; motion for new trial denied. State v. Franklin, 264 K. 496, 497, 958 P.2d 611 (1998).

40. Standards for admissibility of affidavits from jurors discussed. Butler v. HCA Health Svcs. of Kansas, Inc., 27 K.A.2d 403, 6 P.3d 871 (2000).

41. Evidence regarding mental processes of jurors reaching a verdict inadmissible. State v. Cook, 281 K. 961, 976, 135 P.3d 1147 (2006).

42. General rule for jury recall cited and discussed; jury verdict reinstated. Williams v. Lawton, 38 K.A.2d 565, 170 P.3d 414 (2007).

43. Cited in case involving motion to recall jury after juror misconduct; motion of denial upheld. State v. Kirkpatrick, 286 K. 329, 352, 184 P.3d 247 (2008).

44. Cited; in case involving extrajudicial evidence by juror, no new trial ordered on that basis. State v. Johnson, 40 K.A.2d 1059, 1064-1067, 1079, 198 P.3d 769 (2008).

45. K.S.A. 60-441 and 60-440 discussed regarding juror testimony; jury recall found warranted. Williams v. Lawton, 288 K. 768, 207 P.3d 1027 (2009).

46. When ruling on estate's motion for a new trial, trial court could not consider juror affidavit discussing jury's deliberation process. Estate of Mills v. Mangosing, 44 K.A.2d 399, 238 P.3d 293 (2010).


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