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60-1904. Elements of damage. (a) Damages may be recovered for, but are not limited to:

(1) Mental anguish, suffering or bereavement;

(2) loss of society, companionship, comfort or protection;

(3) loss of marital care, attention, advice or counsel;

(4) loss of filial care or attention;

(5) loss of parental care, training, guidance or education; and

(6) reasonable funeral expenses for the deceased.

(b) If no probate administration for the estate of the deceased has been commenced, expenses for the care of the deceased which resulted from the wrongful act may also be recovered by any one of the heirs who paid or became liable for them. Those expenses and any amount recovered for funeral expenses shall not be included in the limitation of K.S.A. 60-1903 and amendments thereto.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-1904; L. 1984, ch. 214, § 2; July 1.

Source or prior law:

G.S. 1868, ch. 80, § 422; L. 1909, ch. 182, § 419; R.S. 1923, 60-3203; L. 1939, ch. 233, § 2; L. 1947, ch. 319, § 1; L. 1955, ch. 277, § 1.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

"Survey of Tort Damages," Jerry G. Larson, Tim O'Sullivan, 14 W.L.J. 466, 474 (1975).

Wrongful death, Mark A. Buck, 17 W.L.J. 26 (1977).

"Infants: Child Can Sue for Loss of Parental Society and Companionship," Stuart L. Shapiro, 20 W.L.J. 652, 658 (1981).

"Euthanasia: A Medical and Legal Overview," Howard N. Ward, 49 J.B.A.K. 317, 325 (1980).

"Child's Right to Sue for Negligent Disruption of Parental Consortium," Derenda J. Mitchell, 22 W.L.J. 78, 93, 97 (1982).

"Maximizing Recovery under the Kansas Wrongful Death Act," Mark V. Parkinson, Vol. VIII, No. 3, J.K.T.L.A. 21 (1984).

"The Scope of 'Pecuniary Loss' Since Wentling v. M.A.S.," Vol. IX, No. 2, J.K.T.L.A. 7 (1985).

"Punitive Damages in Wrongful Death Actions," Gregory M. Dennis, 11 J.K.T.L.A. No. 2, 14 (1987).

"Our Statutory System for Actual Damages in Tort: Kansas in Wonderland?" Bruce Keplinger and Scott M. Adam, 63 J.K.B.A. No. 1, 18, 21 (1994).

"Questioning Authority: Modifying P.I.K. Instructions to Get the Law Right," Benjamin M. Kieler and Thomas E. Hayes, J.K.T.L.A. Vol. XVII, No. 4, 20, 22 (1994).

"Workers Compensation Review," Joseph Seiwert, Editor, J.K.T.L.A. Vol. 29, No. 3, 23 (2006).

"Making the Most Out of the Cap: Maximizing Non-Economic Damages," Bradley J. Prochaska, J.K.T.L.A. Vol. 29, No. 6, 8 (2006).

CASE ANNOTATIONS

Prior law cases, see G.S. 1949, 60-3203 and the 1961 Supp. thereto.

1. Court considered grief, anguish, suffering, etc., in holding award inadequate for loss of child. Corman, Administrator v. WEG Dial Telephone, Inc., 194 K. 783, 786, 402 P.2d 112.

2. Inadequacy of verdict not shown from judgment. Roda v. Williams, 195 K. 507, 514, 407 P.2d 471.

3. Mentioned in holding surviving spouse to be heir at law for purposes of 60-1902. Barr, Administratrix v. MacHarg, Administrator, 203 K. 612, 614, 455 P.2d 516.

4. Section applied in action for wrongful death resulting from attractive nuisance. Bartlett v. Heersche, 204 K. 392, 393, 404, 462 P.2d 763.

5. Court's damage instruction not improper; statute considered. Wilkins v. Hogan, 425 F.2d 1022, 1025 (1970).

6. Statutes in pari materia must be construed together. Flowers, Administratrix v. Marshall, Administrator, 208 K. 900, 902, 494 P.2d 1184.

7. Evidence in wrongful death action sustained award for death of child who drowned in swimming pool. Burgert v. Tietjens, 499 F.2d 1, 2, 8.

8. Act applied in construing provisions of no fault insurance act (40-3109 and 40-3113); insurer's right as to reimbursement and indemnity determined. Farm & City Ins. Co. v. American Standard Ins. Co., 220 K. 325, 327, 346, 552 P.2d 1363.

9. Heir and heir at law construed as synonymous terms; widow of childless deceased is sole heir and has exclusive right to bring an action hereunder. Johnson v. McArthur, 226 K. 128, 130, 137, 139, 596 P.2d 148.

10. Jury not required to award damages for all elements authorized; must not disregard law and evidence and award nothing. Putter v. Bowman, 7 K.A.2d 323, 328, 641 P.2d 411 (1982).

11. Consideration of elements of pecuniary and nonpecuniary damages recoverable; application of comparative negligence statute to determination of nature and amount of damages. McCart v. Muir, 230 K. 618, 625, 626, 641 P.2d 384 (1982).

12. Plaintiff satisfies pecuniary damages burden by showing nature and extent of losses; fact triers capable of converting to money. Wentling v. Medical Anesthesia Services, 237 K. 503, 506, 514, 701 P.2d 939 (1985).

13. Evidence sufficient to support $1,000,000 jury verdict for pecuniary loss in wrongful death action examined. Leiker v. Gafford, 245 K. 325, 348, 778 P.2d 823 (1989).

14. Loss of services recovered in third-party action under workers compensation act determined subject to subrogation. McGranahan v. McGough, 15 K.A.2d 24, 29, 802 P.2d 593 (1990).

15. Viewed along with PIK instructions on child's recovery for parental care and wrongful death. Laterra v. Treaster, 17 K.A.2d 714, 726, 844 P.2d 724 (1992).

16. Whether legislature intended wrongful death cause of action to permit award of punitive damages examined. Smith v. Printup, 254 K. 315, 334, 866 P.2d 985 (1994).

17. Whether trial court erred in verdict form and jury instructions regarding pecuniary and nonpecuniary damages examined. Griffith v. Mt. Carmel Medical Center, 842 F.Supp. 1359, 1366 (1994).

18. Recovery of monetary damages for loss of filial guidance, counsel and similar services are not precluded in wrongful death claims. Cochrane v. Schneider Nat. Carriers, Inc., 980 F.Supp. 374, 381 (1997).

19. Under contract, heir of person precluded from suing uninsured driver by illegality clause may not file wrongful death action. Parker v. Mid-Century Ins. Co., 25 K.A.2d 329, 331, 962 P.2d 1114 (1998).

20. Trial court ordered to assess statutory maximum for payment of non-pecuniary damages in wrongful death claim. Newton v. Amhof Trucking, Inc., 385 F.Supp.2d 1103, 1109 (2004).


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