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60-3201. Power to answer. The Kansas supreme court may answer questions of law certified to it by the supreme court of the United States, a court of appeals of the United States, a United States district court or the highest appellate court or the intermediate appellate court of any other state, when requested by the certifying court if there are involved in any proceeding before it questions of law of this state which may be determinative of the cause then pending in the certifying court and as to which it appears to the certifying court there is no controlling precedent in the decisions of the supreme court and the court of appeals of this state.

History: L. 1979, ch. 181, § 1; July 1.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

"Insurer's Bad Faith: A New Tort for Kansas?" Janet Amerine and Jan E. Montgomery, 19 W.L.J. 467, 487 (1980).

"Insurance—Punitive Damages—Does Kansas Allow Coverage When Liability Is Vicariously Imposed? From Guarantee To Kline," John E. Sullivan, 32 K.L.R. 932 (1984).

"Tort Law: Recovery of Wrongful Birth Damages in Kansas [ Arche v. United States , 247 Kan. 276, 798 P.2d 477 (1990)]," Bryan W. Smith, 30 W.L.J. 566, 567 (1991).

"An Analysis of the Latent Disease Statute of Limitation," Paul H. Hulsey, J.K.T.L.A. Vol. XVII, No. 3, 6, 7 (1994).

"Kansas Appellate Advocacy: An Inside View of Common-Sense Strategy," Patrick Hughes, 66 J.K.B.A. No. 2, 26 (1997).

"Gunfight at the K-12 Corral: Legislative vs. Judicial Power in the Kansas School Finance Litigation," Richard E. Levy, 54 K.L.R. 1021 (2006).

Attorney General's Opinions:

Annexation; land devoted to agricultural use, effect of presence of home site; rural homestead exemption. 96-17.


1. Kansas Supreme Court may answer questions of law certified to it where no controlling precedent exists to guide certifying court. Spencer v. Aetna Life & Casualty Ins. Co., 227 K. 914, 915, 611 P.2d 149.

2. Applied; doctrine of comparative fault requires all parties to an occurrence to have their respective fault determined in one action. Albertson v. Volkswagenwerk Aktiengesellschaft, 230 K. 368, 634 P.2d 1127 (1981).

3. Question certified hereunder regarding corporate liability for punitive damages for act of agent or employee within scope of employment but without direction or authorization by board of directors. Kline v. Multi-Media Cablevision, Inc., 233 K. 988, 989, 990, 994, 666 P.2d 711 (1983).

4. Certification hereunder; claim arising from negligent release of patient from state institution as distinguished from negligent failure to warn those who might be injured. Durflinger v. Artiles, 234 K. 484, 499, 500, 506, 673 P.2d 86 (1983).

5. Applicability of 60-258a in action against former officers and employees of insolvent savings and loan association discussed. Federal Savings & Loan Ins. Corp. v. Huff, 237 K. 873, 874, 704 P.2d 372 (1985).

6. On question certified, status of life estate as part of life tenant's estate determined. Gaskill v. United States, 238 K. 238, 708 P.2d 522 (1985).

7. Cited; questions regarding common-law liability of innkeeper (36-402) and duties of parties regarding sample merchandise belonging to another determined. Nova Stylings, Inc. v. Red Roof Inns, Inc., 242 K. 318, 319, 747 P.2d 107 (1987).

8. Cited; employer's lack of duty to third party or injury caused by off-duty employee who became intoxicated on job determined. Thies v. Cooper, 243 K. 149, 150, 753 P.2d 1280 (1988).

9. Cited; extension of term mineral interest covering several tracts where one tract unitized (55-1301 et seq.) determined. Edmonston v. Home Stake Oil & Gas Corp., 243 K. 376, 762 P.2d 176 (1988).

10. Applicability of 10-year limitation (60-513(b)) to claims based upon latent diseases determined. Tomlinson v. Celotex Corp., 244 K. 474, 770 P.2d 825 (1989).

11. Employee's right to third-party action against employer (44-5a07) for occupational disease, time limitation on claim (44-5a01) determined. Tomlinson v. Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corp., 244 K. 506, 507, 770 P.2d 833 (1989).

12. Retroactive applications of 1987 amendment to 60-258a examined. Wichita Fed'l Savings & Loan Ass'n v. Black, 245 K. 523, 542, 781 P.2d 707 (1989).

13. Legislative limitation on recovery of noneconomic damages (60-19a01, 60-19a02) as not violating any constitutional rights determined. Samsel v. Wheeler Transport Services, Inc., 246 K. 336, 337, 789 P.2d 541 (1990).

14. Petition for certiorari with U.S. Supreme Court as not extending filing time for motion to modify sentence examined. State v. Miller, 246 K. 445, 448, 790 P.2d 419 (1990).

15. Wrongful birth as recognized tort, type of damages and period of time covered determined. Arche v. United States of America, 247 K. 276, 292, 798 P.2d 477 (1990).

16. Cited in opinion certifying to U.S. district court that 60-507 is statute of limitations applicable to inverse condemnation proceedings. Hiji v. City of Garnett, 248 K. 1, 2, 804 P.2d 950 (1991).

17. On question certified, 40-3403(h) abrogating certain common-law vicarious liability held constitutional. Bair v. Peck, 248 K. 824, 826, 811 P.2d 1176 (1991).

18. Sales tax lien held as attaching to real property which is subject to constitutional claim of homestead exemption. Homestead Land Title Co. v. United States, 249 K. 569, 819 P.2d 660 (1991).

19. Certification to Kansas supreme court of question of recognition of the loss of chance of a more favorable recovery theory denied. Delaney v. Cade, 758 F.Supp. 1437, 1439 (1991).

20. Insurance commissioner not required to execute appeal bond in excess of health care stabilization fund's liability (40-3401 et seq.) Todd v. Kelly, 251 K. 512, 513, 526, 837 P.2d 381 (1992).

21. Whether a swimming pool, public or private, is in the same class as instrumentalities and places regarded as attractive nuisances examined. Mozier v. Parson, 256 K. 769, 887 P.2d 692 (1995).

22. Issue regarding validity of arbitration clause in insurance contract governed by law of another state need not be certified question. Federated Rural Elec. Ins. v. International Ins., 884 F.Supp. 439, 444 (1995).

23. Court will not reverse federal district court order denying issue for certification to state supreme court. Marzolf v. Gilmore, 924 F.Supp. 127, 129 (1996).

24. Upon certified question from Missouri Court of Appeals, held court should enforce tariff limiting liability approved by KCC to simple negligence only. Danisco Ingredients USA, Inc. v. Kansas City Power & Light Co., 267 K. 760, 771, 986 P.2d 377 (1999).

25. Certification of questions of law to state court not mandate, decision to certify rests with federal court. Kansas Judicial Watch v. Stout, 455 F.Supp.2d 1258, 1262 (D.Kan. 2006).

26. Certified question regarding applicable statute of limitations for ERISA claim. Burnett v. Southwestern Bell Telephone, 283 K. 134, 136, 151 P.3d 837 (2007).

27. Federal court denies defendant's motion to certify questions of law to Kansas Supreme Court relating to traffic stop evidence seizure. U.S. v. Jones, 512 F.Supp.2d 1193, 1194 (2007).

28. Supreme court answers certified questions of law relating to "occurrences" under automobile insurance policy. American Family Mut. Ins. Co. v. Wilkins, 285 K. 1054, 1056, 179 P.3d 1104 (2008).

29. Cited; supreme court answers certified questions relating to Kansas code of judicial conduct Canons 5A and 5C. Kansas Judicial Review v. Stout, 287 K. 450, 452, 196 P.3d 1162 (2008).

30. Injector of natural gas which migrates loses title to gas which migrated prior to July 1, 1993. Northern Natural Gas Co. v. Martin, Pringle, et al., 289 K. 777, 217 P.3d 966 (2009).

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