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16-107. Import of consideration. All contracts in writing, signed by the party bound thereby, or his authorized agent or attorney, shall import a consideration.

History: G.S. 1868, ch. 21, ยง 7; October 31; R.S. 1923, 16-107.

CASE ANNOTATIONS

1. No consideration need appear in written contract guaranteeing another's payment. Stern v. Deutsch, 9 Kan. App. 218, 220, 59 P. 687.

2. Under written contracts importing consideration lack of consideration affirmative defense. Pratt v. Cook, 10 Kan. App. 144, 146, 62 P. 438.

3. Endorsement of contract in writing imports a consideration; extension of time sufficient consideration in note. Fuller v. Scott, 8 Kan. 25, 34.

4. A contract in writing imports a consideration. Waynick v. Richmond, 11 Kan. 488; Sprague v. Mo. Pac. Rly. Co., 34 Kan. 347, 353, 8 P. 465; Avery v. Lambertson, 74 Kan. 304, 307, 86 P. 456.

5. Promissory note; a contract in writing imports consideration. Swartz v. Redfield, 13 Kan. 550, 557.

6. Bond requiring obligor to convey real estate imports consideration. Northern Kas. Town Co. v. Oswald, 18 Kan. 336, 339.

7. A check is a written contract and imports consideration. Hawkins v. Windhorst, 82 Kan. 522, 524, 108 P. 805.

8. Memorandum on note, not signed, does not import consideration. Bank v. Dryden, 91 Kan. 216, 217, 137 P. 928.

9. A promissory note imports a valuable consideration. Hoover v. Hoover's Estate, 104 Kan. 635, 638, 639, 180 P. 275.

10. A bill of sale imports a valuable consideration. Warner v. Carter, 109 Kan. 285, 289, 198 P. 960.

11. Written acceptance of bill of exchange imports valuable consideration. Ingersoll v. Bank, 109 Kan. 534, 537, 202 P. 837. Overruled: Ingersoll v. Bank, 110 Kan. 122, 202 P. 837.

12. Evidence insufficient to overcome presumption of consideration of deed. Gerard v. Costin, 113 Kan. 617, 215 P. 1011; Drake v. Seck, 116 Kan. 717, 229 P. 67; Comfort v. Lynch, 118 Kan. 40, 42, 233 P. 1042.

13. Notes subject to defenses still import consideration; burden of proof on defendant when execution admitted. Fidelity State and Savings Bank v. Franz, 128 Kan. 500, 278 P. 718.

14. Not applicable where no mutual obligation and only nominal consideration stated. Shelden v. Bright, 135 Kan. 361, 366, 10 P.2d 831.

15. Contract held to import a consideration hereunder. Boner v. Texas Co., 143 Kan. 746, 750, 57 P.2d 420.

16. Written subscription pledge to college held to import a consideration; want of consideration is affirmative defense which must be established. Southwestern College v. Hawley, 144 Kan. 652, 654, 62 P.2d 850.

17. Signer has burden of proving lack of consideration; affirmative defense. Furst v. De Witt, 145 Kan. 300, 305, 65 P.2d 567.

18. A deed imports a consideration; burden of proof. Chisholm v. Snider, 145 Kan. 573, 579, 66 P.2d 573.

19. Applied to deed; want of consideration is affirmative defense. Carver v. Main, 146 Kan. 251, 256, 69 P.2d 681.

20. Promissory note and mortgage in writing import a consideration. Niebauer v. Bivins, 149 Kan. 260, 268, 87 P.2d 619.

21. Oil and gas lease within purview of section. Riffel v. Dieter, 159 Kan. 628, 636, 157 P.2d 831.

22. Writing imports consideration; antenuptial agreement upheld. In re Estate of Greenleaf, 169 Kan. 22, 28, 217 P.2d 275.

23. Applied; deed executed following purchase contract; presumption consideration was imported. Palmer v. The Land & Power Co., 172 Kan. 231, 237, 239 P.2d 960.

24. Executed deed imports consideration; challenging party has burden of proving otherwise. Hansen v. Walker, 175 Kan. 121, 123, 259 P.2d 242.

25. Applied; mineral deed held not void for lack of consideration. Rostocil v. United Oil & Gas Royalty Ass'n, 177 Kan. 15, 24, 274 P.2d 761.

26. Written antenuptial agreement signed by parties imports consideration. In re Estate of Ward, 178 Kan. 366, 372, 285 P.2d 1081.

27. Contract merged in deed; waiver of mineral reservation right presumes consideration. Palmer v. The Land & Power Co., 180 Kan. 492, 495, 306 P.2d 152.

28. Written acknowledgment of debt without promise to pay actionable. Wilson v. Evans, 185 Kan. 520, 522, 345 P.2d 1002.

29. Marriage consideration for antenuptial contract; contract valid, construction. Bunger v. Bunger, 187 Kan. 642, 644, 359 P.2d 1113.

30. Presumption of consideration is presumption of fact; where consideration controverted, question is one for jury. Ferraro v. Fink, 191 Kan. 53, 56, 379 P.2d 266.

31. Cited; parol evidence admissible to show want or failure of consideration stated in written contract. First Construction Co., Inc. v. Gallup, 204 Kan. 73, 76, 460 P.2d 594.

32. Assignment contract consideration term need not be in writing if other writings exist which satisfy statute of frauds. Carson v. Chevron Chemical Co., 6 Kan. App. 2d 776, 791, 635 P.2d 1248 (1981).

33. Contract need not state on its face the consideration given; lack of consideration is affirmative defense. State ex rel. Ludwick v. Bryant, 237 Kan. 47, 50, 51, 697 P.2d 858 (1985).

34. Whether existence of written promissory notes shifts evidentiary burden in summary judgment motion examined. Herr v. McCormick Grain-The Heiman Company, Inc., 841 F. Supp. 1500, 1508 (1993).

35. Whether defendants had right to revoke contract based on lack of consideration examined. First Nat. Bankshares of Beloit, Inc. v. Geisel, 853 F. Supp. 1344, 1352 (1994).

36. Issue regarding whether merchandiser's continued employment constituted adequate consideration for promissory notes precluded summary judgment. Herr v. Heiman, 75 F.3d 1509, 1515 (1996).

37. Under statute contract consideration is presumed, defendant must raise lack of consideration as an affirmative defense. Hartford Fire Ins. Co. v. P & H Cattle Co., Inc., 451 F. Supp. 2d 1262, 1274 (2006).


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