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21-4204.

History: L. 1969, ch. 180, § 21-4204; L. 1970, ch. 124, § 8; L. 1990, ch. 102, § 2; L. 1991, ch. 85, § 1; L. 1992, ch. 298, § 70; L. 1993, ch. 291, § 149; L. 1994, ch. 348, § 4; L. 1995, ch. 92, § 2; L. 1996, ch. 158, § 4; L. 2006, ch. 210, § 14; L. 2009, ch. 32, § 29; L. 2010, ch. 140, § 16; Repealed, L. 2011, ch. 30, § 288; July 1.

Source or Prior Law:

21-4206.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

"The Kansas Habitual Criminal Act," Bruce E. Miller, 9 W.L.J. 244, 258 (1970).

"The Concealed Firearm—Some Original Issues for Kansas," Mike Foust, 10 W.L.J. 139 (1970).

Use of evidence of prior convictions, Wendell F. Cowan, Jr., 12 W.L.J. 111 (1972).

"Felony Murder in Kansas," S. Jill Weinlood, 26 K.L.R. 145, 146 (1977).

Mandatory minimum terms for crimes involving firearms, 26 K.L.R. 277, 281 (1978).

"Evidence of Other Crimes in Kansas," Chad M. Renn, 17 W.L.J. 98, 123 (1977).

"Homicide: Felony-Murder Rule—A New Test in Kansas for Inherently Dangerous Collateral Felonies," Jeffery R. Brewer, 20 W.L.J. 646 (1981).

"Beyond Hendricks: The United States Supreme Court Decision in Kansas v. Crane and other issues concerning Kansas' Sexually Violent Predator Act," Kevin J. Breer, 71 J.K.B.A. No. 4, 13 (2002).

"Durational and Dispositional Departures Under the Kansas Sentencing Guidelines Act: The Kansas Supreme Court's Uneasy Passage Through Apprendi-land [State v. Carr, 53 P.3d 843 (Kan. 2002)]," Steven J. Crossland, 42 W.L.J. 687 (2003).

Attorney General's Opinions:

Search and seizure; custody and disposition of property seized. 79-36.

Law enforcement training center; requirements for admission. 80-225.

Crimes against the public safety; possession of firearm at a person's fixed place of business. 82-238.

Liability for costs in certain criminal cases. 85-149.

CASE ANNOTATIONS

1. Unless it fails to state a public offense, sufficiency of information may not be challenged in post-conviction proceeding. Weathers v. State, 208 Kan. 653, 493 P.2d 270.

2. Conviction hereunder upheld; subsection (1)(b) construed to connote the exercise of dominion over object in question. State v. Knowles, 209 Kan. 676, 677, 498 P.2d 40.

3. Voluntary plea of guilty hereunder admissible in prosecution under K.S.A. 21-3426 and 21-3427. State v. Calvert, 211 Kan. 174, 176, 505 P.2d 1110.

4. Prior conviction necessary element to offense charged hereunder; conviction upheld. State v. Wilson, 215 Kan. 28, 32, 523 P.2d 337.

5. Violation of section charged; search of vehicle without warrant held incident to valid arrest, reasonable. State v. Tygart, 215 Kan. 409, 410, 524 P.2d 753.

6. Conviction under subsection (1)(b) reversed; refusal of trial court to define "possession." State v. Neal, 215 Kan. 737, 738, 741, 529 P.2d 114.

7. Cited in upholding order revoking probation under suspended sentence following conviction hereunder. State v. Rasler, 216 Kan. 292, 532 P.2d 1077.

8. Conviction hereunder upheld; introduction of prior felony convictions not erroneous. State v. Johnson, 216 Kan. 445, 532 P.2d 1325.

9. Conviction of aggravated assault and possession of a firearm; record reviewed; no error shown. State v. Rasler, 216 Kan. 582, 585, 533 P.2d 1262.

10. Conviction hereunder upheld; search and seizure not unconstitutional; evidence properly admitted. State v. Matthews, 217 Kan. 654, 538 P.2d 637.

11. Conviction hereunder; evidence of refusal of handwriting exemplar properly admitted; outside scope of constitutional privilege. State v. Haze, 218 Kan. 60, 542 P.2d 720.

12. Admission of entire criminal file not proper method of establishing prior conviction as element of charge hereunder; not reversible error under facts. State v. Farris, 218 Kan. 136, 139, 140, 542 P.2d 725.

13. Plea of guilty to this and other sections; motion to set aside conviction denied; affirmed on appeal. Trotter v. State, 218 Kan. 266, 267, 543 P.2d 1023.

14. Conviction hereunder; due process not denied by use of lay judge in preliminary hearing. State v. Boone, 218 Kan. 482, 483, 543 P.2d 945.

15. Violation of section constituted collateral felony in application felony murder rule; conviction affirmed. State v. Goodseal, 220 Kan. 487, 488, 490, 496, 503, 504, 553 P.2d 279. Overruled as to collateral felony: State v. Underwood, 228 Kan. 294, 615 P.2d 153.

16. Possession of revolver by released felon; collateral felony; conviction of felony murder affirmed. State v. Guebara, 220 Kan. 520, 553 P.2d 296. Overruled as to collateral felony: State v. Underwood, 228 Kan. 294, 615 P.2d 153.

17. Confession voluntary; evidence sufficient. State v. Harwick, 220 Kan. 572, 574, 578, 552 P.2d 987.

18. Instructions on firearms charge not clearly erroneous; conviction for felony murder and firearms possession affirmed. State v. Birch, 221 Kan. 122, 558 P.2d 119. Overruled as to collateral felony: State v. Underwood, 228 Kan. 294, 615 P.2d 153.

19. Error in information citing this section rather than K.S.A. 21-4202; not grounds for reversal of conviction; K.S.A. 22-3201 applied. State v. Wright, 221 Kan. 132, 140, 557 P.2d 1267.

20. Crimes in which prior conviction is a necessary element distinguished from crimes considered in establishing penalties. State v. Loudermilk, 221 Kan. 157, 159, 557 P.2d 1229.

21. Mentioned; conviction of voluntary manslaughter reversed; failure to instruct on lesser included offense. State v. Seelke, 221 Kan. 672, 677, 561 P.2d 869.

22. Failure of trial court to advise of right to testify not error after accused consulted with counsel. State v. McKinney, 221 Kan. 691, 561 P.2d 432.

23. Various alleged errors reviewed and no reversible error found. State v. Ames, 222 Kan. 88, 89, 563 P.2d 1034.

24. Defendant who has been adjudged guilty but not sentenced is a convicted felon. State v. Holmes, 222 Kan. 212, 213, 215, 563 P.2d 480.

25. Rights under warrantless clause of 4 th Amendment violated. State v. Dean, 2 Kan. App. 2d 64, 574 P.2d 572.

26. Conviction under this section upheld. State v. Hoskins, 222 Kan. 436, 437, 438, 440, 565 P.2d 608.

27. Amendment of information after defendant's losing argument prejudiced substantial rights; new trial ordered. State v. Johnson, 223 Kan. 185, 189, 191, 573 P.2d 976.

28. Conduct of prosecutor, although improper, constituted harmless error; conviction under section affirmed. State v. Jordan, 223 Kan. 197, 574 P.2d 194.

29. Conviction hereunder affirmed. State v. Shaffer, 223 Kan. 244, 574 P.2d 205.

30. Statement by declarant unavailable as witness held admissible under K.S.A. 60-460 (d) (3); conviction affirmed. State v. Adams, 223 Kan. 254, 573 P.2d 604.

31. Record examined on appeal from conviction hereunder and of other crimes; no reversible error. State v. Smallwood, 223 Kan. 320, 321, 574 P.2d 1361.

32. Probationer, after plea of guilty to violation of section, improperly charged with felony murder; conviction reversed and remanded. State v. McCowan, 223 Kan. 329, 573 P.2d 1029.

33. Convicted felon prohibited from possession of firearms proscribed by section during pendency of appeal. State v. Watie, 223 Kan. 349, 350, 573 P.2d 1034.

34. Waiver of right to silence; jury instruction of opening argument not prejudicial error. State v. Singleton, 223 Kan. 559, 575 P.2d 540.

35. Prosecution under subsection (1)(b); jury acquittal. State v. Cates, 223 Kan. 724, 576 P.2d 657.

36. Amended complaint proper; failure to give limiting instructions not clearly erroneous. State v. Bell, 224 Kan. 105, 577 P.2d 1186.

37. Judgment not affected by trial errors. State v. Murrell, 224 Kan. 689, 585 P.2d 1017.

38. Denial of admission of prior written inconsistent statement. State v. Murrell, 224 Kan. 689, 585 P.2d 1017.

39. Judge's comment regarding truth of testimony prejudicial to defendant; conviction hereunder reversed. State v. Salter, 2 Kan. App. 2d 635, 586 P.2d 62.

40. Court did not abuse discretion (on grounds raised) in refusing to order mistrial; conviction hereunder affirmed. State v. Turner, 2 Kan. App. 2d 645, 646, 649, 586 P.2d 279.

41. Classifications hereunder not invidious discrimination between felons and misdemeanants; distinction between lengths of barrels of firearms justified. State v. Chiles, 226 Kan. 140, 142, 143, 595 P.2d 1130.

42. Miranda rights waived by inference. State v. Jackson, 226 Kan. 302, 597 P.2d 255.

43. Cited in upholding filing of amended information changing underlying felony in felony murder charge and admission of evidence of prior conviction hereunder. State v. McCowan, 226 Kan. 752, 753, 759, 767, 602 P.2d 1363.

44. Information not fatally defective for failure to allege that imprisonment was for a felony under (1)(b). State v. Washington, 226 Kan. 768, 771, 602 P.2d 1377.

45. Mandatory sentencing under K.S.A. 21-4618 considered and applied. State v. Thompson, 3 Kan. App. 2d 426, 427, 596 P.2d 174.

46. Conviction for unlawful possession of firearm affirmed; firearm protruding from under seat of empty car lawfully seized. State v. Goodman, 3 Kan. App. 2d 619, 623, 626, 627, 599 P.2d 327.

47. Operable automatic pistol is firearm even though unloaded; sufficient evidence to support possession. State v. Boster, 4 Kan. App. 2d 355, 359, 361, 606 P.2d 1035.

48. Comparative negligence statute held applicable to injury received as result of proscribed sale of explosive to minor. Arredondo v. Duckwall Stores, Inc., 227 Kan. 842, 846, 610 P.2d 1107.

49. Unlawful possession of firearm will not sustain conviction for first degree murder under felony murder rule. State v. Underwood, 228 Kan. 294, 295, 303, 306, 307, 615 P.2d 153.

50. Warrantless search of automobile after defendant arrested for speeding and no longer in car violates constitutional protection. State v. Sanders, 5 Kan. App. 2d 189, 190, 191, 614 P.2d 998.

51. A killing during flight from aggravated robbery may constitute felony murder if part of res gestae. State v. Rider, Edens & Lemons, 229 Kan. 394, 395, 625 P.2d 425.

52. Where defendant pushed plunger on needle in deceased's arm and pulled gun trigger ultimately resulting in death, defendant properly convicted of first degree murder. State v. Cobb, 229 Kan. 522, 625 P.2d 1133.

53. Defense of entrapment must show intent to engage in criminal conduct was instigated by law enforcement officers. State v. Smith, 229 Kan. 533, 625 P.2d 1139.

54. Use of firearm in self-defense not a defense to charge of unlawful possession; possession defined. State v. Jones, 229 Kan. 618, 620, 621, 629 P.2d 181 (1981).

55. Foundation for admitting gun into evidence considered. State v. Niblock, 230 Kan. 156, 631 P.2d 661 (1981).

56. Unlawful possession of a firearm within five years of release for felony, begins from the latest date an accused is released irrespective of the fact the accused had previously been paroled. State v. Garton, 8 Kan. App. 2d 142, 143, 651 P.2d 27 (1982).

57. Mentioned in construction of "possession" in affirming trial court's dismissal of prosecution for possession of cocaine. State v. Flinchpaugh, 232 Kan. 831, 833, 659 P.2d 208 (1983).

58. Where defendant concealed gun in clothing and drew gun in attempt to flee, possession more than "innocent handling." State v. Pondexter, 234 Kan. 208, 213, 214, 671 P.2d 539 (1983).

59. Cited in holding violation of K.S.A. 21-3826 (possession of contraband in prison) not inherently dangerous; will not support felony murder charge. State v. Brantley, 236 Kan. 379, 381, 383, 691 P.2d 26 (1984).

60. Unlawful possession does not require proof of actual control, as in K.S.A. 21-2618. State v. Cunningham, 236 Kan. 842, 845, 695 P.2d 1280 (1985).

61. Effects of voluntary intoxication instruction, testimony of witness following unintentional violation of sequestration order. State v. Johns, 237 Kan. 402, 699 P.2d 538 (1985).

62. K.S.A. 60-1507 hearing denied where facts previously determined in post-conviction hearing from which no appeal taken. Palmer v. State, 10 Kan. App. 2d 656, 657, 707 P.2d 1091 (1985).

63. Proceeding under K.S.A. 60-1507; intent of sentencing judge when one of multiple sentences vacated; propriety of judge's ex parte communication with penitentiary discussed. Niblock v. State, 11 Kan. App. 2d 30, 31, 711 P.2d 771 (1985).

64. Evidence of prior crimes (K.S.A. 60-455), sufficiency of complaint affidavit, photographic evidence, trial consolidation discussed. State v. Breazeale, 238 Kan. 714, 714 P.2d 1356 (1986).

65. Using necessary element hereof (prior felony conviction) to enhance sentence (K.S.A. 21-4504) examined. State v. Dodd, 11 Kan. App. 2d 513, 728 P.2d 402 (1986).

66. Defendant as co-counsel, admission of hearsay statements, proof of unlawful possession, venue and jurisdiction examined. State v. Martin, 241 Kan. 732, 733, 740 P.2d 577 (1987).

67. Judicial conduct supporting censure proceedings, fair sentencing proceedings, sentencing guidelines examined. State v. Lake, 12 Kan. App. 2d 275, 740 P.2d 106 (1987).

68. Cited; possession of disassembled sawed-off shotgun pieces easily reassembled as unlawful use (K.S.A. 21-4201) examined. State v. Kulper, 12 Kan. App. 2d 301, 303, 744 P.2d 519 (1987).

69. Cited; knowledge, intent or absence of mistake as not constituting element of subsequent offense under K.S.A. 21-4619(f)(4) (expungement statute). State v. Riedel, 242 Kan. 834, 835, 752 P.2d 115 (1988).

70. Confinement on unrelated charges as subterfuge to avoid K.S.A. 22-3402, change of venue, prosecutor as witness, judge's disqualification examined. State v. Goss, 245 Kan. 189, 190, 777 P.2d 781 (1989).

71. Habitual criminal act (K.S.A. 21-4504) cannot be invoked where necessary element of the felony is prior felony conviction. State v. Smith, 245 Kan. 381, 781 P.2d 666 (1989).

72. Use of statements made during polygraph exam to impeach, comments on postarrest silence, evaluation of competency, jury instructions examined. State v. Green, 245 Kan. 398, 399, 781 P.2d 678 (1989).

73. Voir dire of panel, instruction on drug use, evidence of different crime testimony by witnesses at prior proceeding examined. State v. Osby, 246 Kan. 621, 622, 793 P.2d 243 (1990).

74. Voluntary intoxication as defense to charge of first degree murder examined. State v. Gadelkarim, 247 Kan. 505, 802 P.2d 507 (1990).

75. Seizure of person and pat-down search examined; circumstances determined as insufficient to justify stop and search. State v. Burks, 15 Kan. App. 2d 87, 88, 803 P.2d 587 (1991).

76. Admission over objection of sentences imposed in prior felony convictions is abuse of discretion; no reversible error under facts. State v. Wagner, 248 Kan. 240, 241, 244, 807 P.2d 139 (1991).

77. Felony supporting felony murder conviction, prosecutor's remarks during closing argument examined. State v. Hobbs, 248 Kan. 342, 343, 807 P.2d 120 (1991).

78. Defendant subject to firearms disability following burglary convictions; violent felonies; enhancement of sentence despite certificate of discharge. U.S. v. Burns, 934 F.2d 1157 (1991).

79. Receipt of firearm by convicted felon conviction upheld; civil rights regarding firearms not restored by certificate of discharge. U.S. v. Coffman, 761 F. Supp. 1493, 1495 (1991).

80. Exclusion of expert testimony, withholding impeachment evidence, absence at in camera hearing, cross-examination rights examined. State v. Humphrey, 252 Kan. 6, 8, 845 P.2d 592 (1992).

81. Cited; application of K.S.A. 21-4618 to conviction under this section is erroneous. State v. Edwards, 252 Kan. 860, 861, 870, 871, 852 P.2d 98 (1993).

82. Extent of reasonable diligence in attempting to locate absent witness examined. State v. Mitchell, 18 Kan. App. 2d 530, 855 P.2d 989 (1993).

83. Cited; whether defendant's exclusion from limited retroactivity provision of state sentencing guidelines violates equal protection examined. Chiles v. State, 254 Kan. 888, 891, 869 P.2d 707 (1994).

84. Whether gun-free school zones act (18 U.S.C.A. 922(q)) is unconstitutional extension of federal control over public schools examined. U.S. v. Glover, 842 F. Supp. 1327, 1329 (1994).

85. Whether defendant must prove expungement or pardon after prosecution makes prima facie case of conviction examined. State v. Davis, 255 Kan. 357, 368, 370, 874 P.2d 1156 (1994).

86. Noted in discussion of how far back prior termination of parental rights should be considered in applying subsequent unfitness presumption. In re J.L., 20 Kan. App. 2d 665, 673, 891 P.2d 1125 (1995).

87. Whether fact defendant was not a law enforcement officer is an element of subsection (l)(d) violation examined. State v. Bennett, 20 Kan. App. 2d 767, 770, 892 P.2d 522 (1995).

88. Admission of evidence of felony conviction without limiting instruction not reversible error if not requested by defendant. State v. Humphrey, 258 Kan. 351, 367, 905 P.2d 664 (1995).

89. Failure of trial court to give limiting instruction regarding evidence of felony conviction absent request by defendant not reversible error. State v. Banks, 260 Kan. 918, 928, 927 P.2d 456 (1996).

90. Fair sentencing hearing denied because of court's ex parte meeting with victim's family and ex parte consideration of petition requesting harsh punishment. State v. Scales, 261 Kan. 734, 735, 736, 933 P.2d 737 (1997).

91. Prior state conviction qualified as punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year for federal statute purposes. U.S. v. Arnold, 113 F.3d 1146, 1147 (1997).

92. Specific inclusion of juvenile offender in section precludes application thereto by pre-1996 aggravated escape from custody section (K.S.A. 21-3810). State v. Clint L., 262 Kan. 174, 177, 936 P.2d 235 (1997).

93. Municipality may not classify state felony as municipal misdemeanor and prosecute defendant. City of Junction City v. Cadoret, 263 Kan. 164, 169, 946 P.2d 1356 (1997).

94. Trial court erred applying statute in effect at time possession offense occurred rather than time of initial felony conviction. State v. Lueker, 264 Kan. 341, 342, 956 P.2d 681 (1998).

95. Standard of proof for possession of firearm by person convicted of felony construed. State v. Johnson, 25 Kan. App. 2d 105, 107, 959 P.2d 476 (1998).

96. District court may correct sentence that imposed incorrect guidelines sentence based on correct severity level and criminal history score. State v. Reedy, 25 Kan. App. 2d 536, 967 P.2d 342 (1998).

97. As requested by defense, trial court must agree to stipulation of prior felony conviction; prosecution may place in record prior judgment and sentence of prior felony conviction but may not disclose such information to jury. State v. Lee, 266 Kan. 804, 814, 816, 977 P.2d 263 (1999).

98. In prosecution for criminal possession of a firearm, wherein prior felony conviction is an element, error to admit journal entry as unnecessary and prejudicial when defendant concedes on record to prior felony conviction; error also taints conviction of intentional second-degree murder. State v. Gill, 26 Kan. App. 2d 127, 128, 130, 131, 980 P.2d 591 (1999).

99. Case remanded based on possibility that jury failed to render unanimous verdict based on same underlying act of possession. State v. Barber, 26 Kan. App. 2d 330, 332, 988 P.2d 250 (1999).

100. State not limited in proof of defendant's felony status when defendant does not stipulate to conviction. State v. Gill, 268 Kan. 247, 248, 997 P.2d 710 (2000).

101. No error in admitting defendant's pretrial statement nor in imposing consecutive sentences. State v. Ramos, 271 Kan. 520, 24 P.3d 95 (2001).

102. Criminal possession of firearm may serve as underlying crime in charge of involuntary manslaughter. State v. Owens, 272 Kan. 682, 35 P.3d 791 (2001).

103. Kansas law applied; Missouri suspended imposition of sentence considered to be necessary predicate felony for charge of criminal possession of firearm. State v. Pollard, 273 Kan. 706, 44 P.3d 1261 (2002).

104. Section's making it unlawful for convicted felon to possess ammunition did not exceed congressional power under commerce clause. U.S. v. Jones, 390 F.3d 1291, 1293 (2004).

105. Enhanced sentence based on prior violent felonies upheld. U.S. v. Baker, 508 F.3d 1321, 1328 (10 th Cir. 2007).

106. Stipulation by defendant as to prior offender prohibited from possessing firearm did not impair state's prosecution under K.S.A. 21-4204. State v. Mitchell, 285 Kan. 1070, 1071, 1074, 1079, 179 P.3d 394 (2008).

107. Under sentencing guidelines court has discretion to sentence defendant to any sentence within presumptive range; no constitutional error. State v. Gallegos, 286 Kan. 869, 871, 878, 190 P.3d 226 (2008).

108. Charges hereunder; information received from defendant's phone conversations in jail held consented to by defendant; no wiretap violation. State v. Andrews, 39 Kan. App. 2d 19, 20, 176 P.3d 245 (2008).

109. Conviction hereunder upheld; new trial on grounds of newly discovered evidence properly denied. State v. Edwards, 39 Kan. App. 2d 300, 306, 179 P.3d 472 (2008).

110. Cited; right to possess firearm after felony conviction was five years under K.S.A. 21-4204(a)(3). U.S. v. Wattree, 544 F. Supp.2d 1262, 1268, 1270, 1271, 1273 (2008).

111. Cited; defendant's prior Kansas conviction for criminal possession of a firearm constituted qualifying felony for federal felon in possession crime. U.S. v. Hill, 539 F.3d 1213 to 1215, 1218, 1219, 1221 (2008).

112. Journal entry clarified crime was sexually motivated; district court affirmed. State v. Garcia, 288 Kan. 761, 207 P.3d 251 (2009).

113. Felony murder convictions affirmed; discussion of unanimity instructions; alternative means cases and multiple acts cases. State v. Dixon, 289 Kan. 46, 209 P.3d 675 (2009).

114. Violation of K.S.A. 21-4204(a)(5) does not require that school be in session or students present. State v. Toler, 41 Kan. App. 2d 896, 206 P.3d 548 (2009).

115. Conviction for criminal possession of a firearm inappropriate for prior felony for an attempt crime. State v. Knight, 42 Kan. App. 2d 893, 218 P.3d 1177 (2009).

116. Defendant's prior conviction for attempted possession of cocaine could not be used to convict defendant for criminal possession of a firearm. State v. Knight, 44 Kan. App. 2d 666, 241 P.3d 120 (2010).

117. Defendant prohibited from possessing a firearm for a 10-year period commencing on date defendant was released from prison. State v. LaGrange, 294 Kan. 623, 279 P.3d 105 (2012).

118. Defendant convicted of aggravated assault under Kansas law subject to 10-year, rather than lifetime, ban on firearms possession. U.S. v. Hoyle, 697 F.3d 1158 (10 th Cir. 2012).


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