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58-2202. Term "heirs" not necessary to estate in fee simple; what shall pass in conveyance of real estate. The term "heirs," or other words of inheritance, shall not be necessary to create or convey an estate in fee simple; and every conveyance of real estate shall pass all the estate of the grantor therein, unless the intent to pass a less estate shall expressly appear or be necessarily implied in the terms of the grant.

History: G.S. 1868, ch. 22, ยง 2; October 31; R.S. 1923, 67-202.

Cross References to Related Sections:

When devise passes whole estate, see 59-614.

Property act of 1939, see 58-501 through 58-506.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

Property act of 1939, William R. Scott, 24 J.B.A.K. 175, 176 (1955).

Case in annotation No. 14 below discussed in 1955-56 survey of real property and future interests, Ferd E. Evans, Jr., 5 K.L.R. 300, 305 (1956).

Case in annotation No. 15 below discussed in 1956-57 survey of real property and future interests, Ferd E. Evans, Jr., 5 K.L.R. 300, 305 (1956).

1957-59 survey of real property and future interests, James K. Logan, 8 K.L.R. 333, 338 (1959).

"Expressions of Intent to Create Fees," William R. Scott, 3 W.L.J. 5 (1964).

Interpretation of section by case in annotation No. 18 mentioned, Robert I. Guenthner, 15 K.L.R. 346, 361 (1967).

"Toward a Functional Mineral Jurisprudence for Kansas," David E. Pierce, 27 W.L.J. 223, 232, 233 (1988).

"Recent Developments in Kansas Oil and Gas Law (1983-1988)," Phillip E. DeLaTorre, 37 K.L.R. 907, 948 (1989).

"The Kansas Nonparticipating Mineral Interest," Michael J. Baxter, 53 W.L.J. 545 (2014).

CASE ANNOTATIONS

1. Section applied to estate conveyed by will. Holt v. Wilson, 82 K. 268, 271, 272, 108 P. 87; Dixon v. Dixon, 85 K. 379, 382, 116 P. 886; Twist v. Twist, 91 K. 803, 805, 139 P. 377.

2. Limitation to "blood heirs" void; grantees take in fee simple. Howe v. Howe, 94 K. 67, 69, 145 P. 873.

3. Word "estate" has general and not technical meaning. Platt v. Woodland, 121 K. 291, 297, 246 P. 1017; Barker v. Lashbrook, 128 K. 595, 597, 279 P. 12.

4. Assignment construed to pass complete interest. Knutson v. Hederstedt, 125 K. 312, 316, 264 P. 41.

5. Deeds construed to convey abutting railroad right of way. Roxana Petroleum Corp. v. Jarvis, 127 K. 365, 372, 273 P. 661.

6. Reservation of servient interest; language in deed inadequate. Barker v. Lashbrook, 128 K. 595, 597, 279 P. 12.

7. When no reservation in conveyance entire title passes. Finney County Comm'rs v. Welsh, 133 K. 258, 260, 299 P. 600.

8. Title and right acquired under will requiring payments by devisee. Votapka v. Votapka, 136 K. 224, 226, 14 P.2d 732.

9. Deed construed and held to convey entire interest of grantor. Hoover v. Roberts, 146 K. 785, 793, 794, 74 P.2d 152.

10. Lease considered and held accredited land not included therein. Ohio Oil Co. v. Shaffer, 150 K. 773, 777, 781, 97 P.2d 99.

11. Common law rule abrogated. Pumroy v. Jenkins, 151 K. 466, 468, 99 P.2d 752.

12. Deed construed to convey life estate not fee simple. Bennett v. Humphreys, 159 K. 416, 419, 155 P.2d 431.

13. Applied; deed conveyed life estate, vested remainder; Wild's case rule inapplicable. Epperson v. Bennett, 161 K. 298, 301, 167 P.2d 606.

14. Quiet title action; section considered in construing warranty deed. Brungardt v. Smith, 178 K. 629, 637, 290 P.2d 1039.

15. Entire estate passes unless intent to pass lesser estate expressly appears; words of inheritance unnecessary to create permanent easement. Hale v. Ziegler, 180 K. 249, 257, 303 P.2d 190.

16. Cited in dissenting opinion in discussing estate or interest conveyed by deed. In re Estate of Goff, 191 K. 17, 34, 379 P.2d 225.

17. Language in deed held inadequate to reserve servient interest. Shell Petroleum Corporation v. Hollow, 70 F.2d 811.

18. Presumption is that will conveys entire estate of testator in property bequeathed. Spicer v. United States, 217 F.Supp. 44, 45, 52.

19. A deed is to be construed to confer upon grantee the greatest estate its terms will permit. Keller v. Ely, 192 K. 698, 702, 391 P.2d 132.

20. Quiet title action involving a boundary line dispute; deed strictly construed against grantor. Fritzler v. Dumler, 209 K. 16, 21, 495 P.2d 1027.

21. Dispute over undivided interest in minerals; deed conveying real estate by surface description conveys grantor's interest in underlying minerals. Fast v. Fast, 209 K. 24, 26, 496 P.2d 171.

22. Servient estate in small tract of land set apart for school purposes passes with fee conveyance of abutting tract unless clearly excluded. Gotheridge v. Unified School District, 212 K. 798, 801, 803, 512 P.2d 478.

23. Conveyance of real estate passes all estate of grantor unless intent to pass less is expressed or necessarily implied. Stratmann v. Stratmann, 6 K.A.2d 403, 407, 628 P.2d 1080 (1981).

24. Applied; fee simple determinable not necessarily created by use restrictions on property conveyed. Roberts v. Rhodes, 231 K. 74, 76, 77, 643 P.2d 116 (1982).

25. In action to quiet title to oil, gas and mineral interests, all deeds unambiguous; conveyances passed all interests of grantors therein with no reservations. Hall v. Mullen, 234 K. 1031, 1040, 678 P.2d 169 (1984).

26. Ambiguity in deed (mineral) to be construed by method most favorable to grantee. Heyen v. Hartnett, 235 K. 117, 123, 679 P.2d 1152 (1984).

27. Coal warranty deeds construed to not pass rights to coalbed methane gas. Central Natural Resources v. Davis Operating Co., 288 K. 234, 201 P.3d 680 (2009).

28. School district's purchase of land under threat of condemnation resulted in no restriction on resale. Knop v. Gardner Edgerton U.S.D. No. 231, 41 K.A.2d 698, 205 P.3d 755 (2009).


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