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60-512. Actions limited to three years. The following actions shall be brought within three (3) years: (1) All actions upon contracts, obligations or liabilities expressed or implied but not in writing. (2) An action upon a liability created by a statute other than a penalty or forfeiture.

History: L. 1963, ch. 303, 60-512; January 1, 1964.

Source or prior law:

G.S. 1868, ch. 80, § 18; L. 1897, ch. 91, § 1; L. 1909, ch. 182, § 17; R.S. 1923, 60-306 (2 nd clause).

Cross References to Related Sections:

Action upon statutory penalty or forfeiture limited to one year, see 60-514(c).

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

The doctrine of Lawrence v. Fox, Francis W. Jacob, 1 J.B.A.K. 261, 288 (1933).

Cited in note on the effect of statutes of limitations on implied warranty actions, Larry K. Meeker, 5 W.L.J. 62, 72 (1965).

"A Glimpse at a Plaintiff's Remedies Under Kansas' Antitrust Laws," Kenton C. Granger, 8 W.L.J. 1, 11 (1968).

Survey of Kansas commercial law (1965-1969), 18 K.L.R. 388, 393 (1970).

"Securities Registration Under the Kansas Securities Act," Fred B. Lovitch, 22 K.L.R. 565, 566 (1974).

Survey of contracts, U.C.C.C. and U.C.C., Franklin E. Lynch and Larry Schneider, 15 W.L.J. 324, 325 (1976).

Strict liability in tort as adopted in Kansas, 25 K.L.R. 462, 475 (1977).

Warranty violations in tripartite finance lease agreements, Winton A. Winter, Jr., 25 K.L.R. 573, 574 (1977).

"Survey of Kansas Law: Insurance," Charles H. Oldfather, Jr., 27 K.L.R. 255, 266 (1979).

"A Practitioner's Guide to the Kansas Tort Claims Act," Jerry R. Palmer, 48 J.B.A.K. 299, 303 (1979).

"Governmental Liability: The Kansas Tort Claims Act [or The King Can Do Wrong]," John A. Hageman and Lee A. Johnson, 19 W.L.J. 260, 282 (1980).

"The Kansas Tort Claims Act and School Districts," Susan C. Jacobson, 28 K.L.R. 619, 623 (1980).

"School Liability for Athletic Injuries: Duty, Causation and Defense," James D. Harty, 21 W.L.J. 315, 337 (1982).

"Not Only Can The King Do Wrong, But When He Does, He's Probably Liable," Jerry R. Palmer, 2 J.K.T.L.A. No. 7, 24, 25 (1979).

"Recent Developments in Kansas Insurance Law: A Survey, Some Analysis, and Some Suggestions," Robert H. Jerry II, 32 K.L.R. 287, 290 (1984).

"Is Kansas Probate Non Claim Statute Unconstitutional?" John F. Kuether, 54 J.K.B.A. 115, 129 (1985).

"Equipment Leases Under Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code," Charles D. Lee, 57 J.K.B.A. No. 1, 27, 28 (1988).

"Legal Malpractice—The Elusive Statute of Limitations," Dennis Clyde, 11 J.K.T.L.A. No. 5, 5 (1988).

"Statutes of Limitation, Statutes of Repose and Continuing Duties under the Kansas Product Liability Act," Steve R. Fabert, 36 W.L.J. 367 (1997).

"The Kansas Tort Claims Act: The Evolving Parameters of Governmental Tort Liability," Terri Savely Bezek, 66 J.K.B.A. No. 8, 30 (1997).

"Public Motor Carriers, Negligence Per Se and Attorneys Fees Too," Robert G. Herndon, J.K.T.L.A. Vol. XXI, No. 6, 9 (1998).

"Caveat plaintiff: Congress has defederalized private securities litigation," Steven A. Ramirez, 67 J.K.B.A. No. 9, 16 (1998).

"The Untapped Potential of the Kansas Consumer Protection Act," Amy Fellows, 74 J.K.B.A. No. 4, 24 (2005).

Attorney General's Opinions:

Action by customer for refund from utility based on refund from supplier increase disallowance must be filed in three years. 87-102.

Assessments for county sewer system services not barred by statute of limitations. 95-74.

CASE ANNOTATIONS

Prior law cases, see G.S. 1949, 60-306 (2 nd clause) and the 1961 Supp. thereto.

1. Held applicable to suit for demurrage charges under 66-101 et seq. Missouri-Kansas-Texas Rld. Co. v. Standard Industries, Inc., 192 K. 381, 383, 387, 388 P.2d 632.

2. Petition alleging oral contract for conveyance of land by defendants and full performance by plaintiff is an action to recover real property. King v. Robbins, 193 K. 70, 73, 75, 392 P.2d 154.

3. Action barred hereunder; summary judgment. Hartman v. Stumbo, 195 K. 634, 635, 637, 408 P.2d 693.

4. Held statute not tolled by conveyance for benefit of stockholders under G.S. 1949, 60-1301. Meador v. Larned Feed Lots, 197 K. 334, 336, 416 P.2d 788.

5. Statute applicable in suit by payee against collecting bank on forged endorsement. Mackey-Woodard, Inc. v. Citizens State Bank, 197 K. 536, 537, 419 P.2d 847.

6. Survival of causes of action in tort and in contract; limitation tolled on action for breach of implied warranty on execution of will. Price, Administrator v. Holmes, 198 K. 100, 107, 422 P.2d 976.

7. Contention on appeal that action barred by this section held not reviewable where question not raised in trial court or designated as point on appeal. In re Estate of Hargreaves, 201 K. 57, 63, 439 P.2d 378.

8. Cause of action for breach of contract accrued at the time of sale and delivery. Freeto Construction Co. v. American Hoist & Derrick Co., 203 K. 741, 744, 745, 457 P.2d 1.

9. Limitation herein not applicable to action against city for damages resulting from overflow of surface waters occasioned by city. Welch v. City of Kansas City, 204 K. 765, 766, 465 P.2d 951.

10. Cited; case concerning denial of motion to amend pleadings. Stehlik, Executor v. Weaver, 206 K. 629, 637, 482 P.2d 21.

11. In case involving a mutual, open, running account, the judgment limiting plaintiff's recovery to those items purchased within three years next preceding the filing of the petition is reversed. Sheldon Grain & Feed Co. v. Schuetz, 207 K. 108, 109, 483 P.2d 1033.

12. Action timely brought. Jay-Ox, Inc. v. Square Deal Junk Co., Inc., 208 K. 856, 858, 494 P.2d 1103.

13. Mentioned in considering misappropriation of trade secret; statute of limitations commences to run at time first adverse use is reasonably ascertainable. Lockridge v. Tweco Products, Inc., 209 K. 389, 392, 497 P.2d 131.

14. Cited; action for breach of contract; held, statute of limitations not controlling. Keith v. Scheifen-Stockham Insurance Agency, Inc., 209 K. 537, 543, 498 P.2d 265.

15. In diversity action court held state recognized, prior to adoption of UCC, prospective warranty and action for breach thereof accrued when breach was or should have been discovered. Brauer v. Republic Steel Corporation, 460 F.2d 801, 803.

16. Damage action founded on unwritten contract timely commenced against attorney for failure to file timely appeal. Juhnke v. Hess, 211 K. 438, 439, 441, 506 P.2d 1142.

17. Motion to set aside default judgment based on erroneous application of statute sustained. Reliance Insurance Companies v. Thompson-Hayward Chemical Co., 214 K. 110, 112, 519 P.2d 730.

18. Referred to in construing 60-513; tort action held commenced within two-year period. Ruthrauff, Administratrix v. Kensinger, 214 K. 185, 192, 519 P.2d 661.

19. Alleged breach of bailment contract; action falls within limitations prescribed by this section rather than 60-513. Continental Ins. Co. v. Windle, 214 K. 468, 469, 471, 472, 520 P.2d 1235.

20. Statute of limitations no bar to action for fraud and breach of oral contract; sufficient evidence for jury. Wolf v. Brungardt, 215 K. 272, 279, 280, 524 P.2d 726.

21. Action involving commercial transaction held governed by four year statute of limitations of the U.C.C. (84-2-725); accrual. Atlas Industries, Inc. v. National Cash Register Co., 216 K. 213, 214, 216, 531 P.2d 41.

22. 60-513(4) barred recovery; summary judgment proper; further discovery would not have supported an action governed by 60-512(1). Johnston v. Farmers Alliance Mutual Ins. Co., 218 K. 543, 545, 546, 545 P.2d 312.

23. Mentioned; issue barred by 84-2-725; alleged warranties did not explicitly extend to future performance. Voth v. Chrysler Motor Corporation, 218 K. 644, 647, 545 P.2d 371.

24. Record reflected genuine issues of fact with regard to application of section; summary judgment not warranted although requested by both parties. Henrickson v. Drotts, 219 K. 435, 548 P.2d 465.

25. Remedial statute (66-1,128) not substantive; two year statute of limitations applicable. Kirtland v. Tri-State Insurance Co., 220 K. 631, 632, 556 P.2d 199.

26. Application of section to action to recover moneys withheld or misappropriated by county treasurer; accrual at end of each term. State, ex rel., v. Masterson, 221 K. 540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 549, 561 P.2d 796.

27. Civil rights action brought in Missouri; this section applied under Missouri's borrowing statute. Burns v. Union Pac. R. R., 564 F.2d 20, 21, 22.

28. Statute of limitations applicable to action under Civil Rights Act of 1866 not tolled pending disposition of Title VII claim. Burns v. Union Pac. R. R., 564 F.2d 20, 21, 22.

29. Section applies to action for breach of implied warranty. Belger Cartage Serv., Inc. v. Holland Construction Company, 224 K. 320, 332, 582 P.2d 1111.

30. Action based on oral contract of employment subject to subsection (1); motion to dismiss properly denied. Head v. Knopp, 225 K. 45, 46, 587 P.2d 867.

31. Section inapplicable to resulting trust; partnership property. Stauth v. Stauth, 2 K.A.2d 512, 516, 582 P.2d 1160.

32. Subsection (1) of this section held not applicable; subsection (1) of 60-511 applies when a promise is in writing and contains all material terms. Miller v. William A. Smith Constructing Co., 226 K. 172, 603 P.2d 602.

33. Section not applicable to action by insurer to recover PIP benefits paid; no new statutory cause of action created by 40-3113. Farmers Ins. Co. v. Farm Bureau Mut. Ins. Co., 227 K. 533, 538, 539, 608 P.2d 923.

34. Action for breach of implied warranty barred; statute of limitations not tolled. Friends University v. W. R. Grace & Co., 227 K. 559, 561, 608 P.2d 936.

35. Statute applicable where material terms or conditions of a contract are not wholly in writing; doctrines of estoppel, laches, waiver, release discussed. Harvester, Inc. v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., 4 K.A.2d 363, 366, 606 P.2d 498.

36. Since the veterans' preference law implies a cause of action to sue for damages, the three-year statute of limitations applies. Pecenka v. Alquest, 6 K.A.2d 26, 27, 29, 626 P.2d 802.

37. Action for contribution on note was not timely filed by comaker. Litwin v. Barrier, 6 K.A.2d 128, 129, 626 P.2d 1232.

38. In action seeking contribution, court looks to when judgment is satisfied. Travelers Insurance Co. v. Feld Car & Truck Leasing Corporation, 517 F.Supp. 1132, 1136 (1981).

39. In an action for breach of an implied warranty, a party may plead and proceed upon the theories of both contract and tort; reversed. Ware v. Christenberry, 7 K.A.2d 1, 3, 4, 637 P.2d 452 (1982).

40. Cited; former partner not liable for barred partnership debt acknowledged by another; laches. Daniels Trucking, Inc. v. Rogers, 7 K.A.2d 407, 409, 410, 411, 412, 643 P.2d 1108 (1982).

41. Amended petition for breach of oral agreement relates back to original pleading; not barred. Augusta Bank & Trust v. Broomfield, 231 K. 52, 54, 58, 643 P.2d 100 (1982).

42. Equitable estoppel prevented plaintiff from using the defense of statute of limitations in breach of exclusive dealership agreement. Levi Strauss & Co. v. Sheaffer, 8 K.A.2d 117, 122, 650 P.2d 738 (1982).

43. Any alleged breach of oral contract of employment occurred at time of agreement; statute runs from that time. Cornett v. Roth, 233 K. 936, 941, 666 P.2d 1182 (1983).

44. Statute of limitations for all civil rights cases under federal statutes should be three-year statute. Sullivan v. LaMunyon, 572 F.Supp. 753, 755, 760 (1983).

45. Statute of limitations relating to civil rights actions is 60-513(a)(4). Garcia v. University of Kansas, 702 F.2d 849, 850 (1983).

46. While statute generally applicable to oral contracts, actions under UCC provide four years (84-2-725). Transamerica Oil Corp. v. Lynes, Inc., 723 F.2d 758, 761 (1983).

47. Duty of architect gives rise to implied warranty; injured party may proceed upon either a contract or tort theory; application of section considered. Tamarac Dev. Co. v. Delamater, Freund & Assocs., 234 K. 618, 619, 622, 675 P.2d 361 (1984).

48. Under Missouri "borrowing" statute, promissory estoppel or breach of contract claim where performance to be in Kansas is governed by Kansas limitation. Hailey v. Yellow Freight System, Inc., 599 F.Supp. 1332, 1336 (1984).

49. Cited in holding accommodation party paying note has rights of surety with five-year period to recover. Lindsey v. Zeller, 10 K.A.2d 4, 6, 690 P.2d 394 (1984).

50. Action under 84-4-207 (implied warranties of banking provisions) controlled hereunder; effect of P.E.G. warranty absent endorsement discussed. Chilson v. Capital Bank of Miami, 10 K.A.2d 111, 112, 692 P.2d 406 (1984).

51. United States Rule applies to interest on suspense royalties; remaining royalty payments under written lease covered by 60-511. Wortman v. Sun Oil Co., 236 K. 266, 271, 272, 690 P.2d 385 (1984).

52. Drawee bank's action for breach of warranty by depositary bank's written warranty "prior endorsements guaranteed" controlled hereunder. Chilson v. Capital Bank of Miami, 237 K. 442, 443, 448, 701 P.2d 903 (1985).

53. Attorney malpractice examined; contract and tort (60-513) theories distinguished, malicious prosecution (60-514) noted. Pancake House, Inc. v. Redmond, 239 K. 83, 86, 716 P.2d 575 (1986).

54. Where continuous service employment agreement exists until employer's death, statute runs on compensation claim when services end. In re Estate of Moe, 240 K. 242, 245, 729 P.2d 447 (1986).

55. Cited; applicability of statute to claims under consumer protection act examined. Agristor Leasing v. Meuli, 634 F.Supp. 1208, 1218 (1986).

56. Cited applicability to claim for restraint of trade under state law examined NL Industries, Inc. v. Gulf & Western Industries, 650 F.Supp. 1115, 1134 (1986).

57. Two-year statute (60-513) applicable to action brought under state age discrimination in employment act (44-1111 et seq.) Ditch v. Bd. of County Comm'rs of County of Shawnee, 650 F.Supp. 1245, 1252, 1253 (1986).

58. Statute applicable where lessee of farm equipment seeks private remedies under consumer protection act (50-623 et seq.). Wight v. Agristor Leasing, 652 F.Supp. 1000, 1018 (1987).

59. Statute applies to suits brought under the Kansas consumer protection act (50-623 et seq.). Haag v. Dry Basement, Inc., 11 K.A.2d 649, 650, 732 P.2d 392 (1987).

60. Cited; liability of and contribution among guarantors, statutes of limitation examined. Kee v. Lofton, 12 K.A.2d 155, 160, 737 P.2d 55 (1987).

61. Decision applying two-year statute to § 1983 action not binding on cause accruing before but filed after decision. Derstein v. Van Buren, 828 F.2d 653, 655 (1987).

62. F.D.I.C. cause of action against insolvent bank's former director did not accrue until director left board and federal limitations period began. Federal Deposit Ins. Corp. v. Hudson, 673 F.Supp. 1039, 1043 (1987).

63. Cited; legal malpractice for failure to prepare and file journal entry, breach of contract, tolling of statute by continuous representation examined. Pittman v. McDowell, Rice & Smith, Chtd., 12 K.A.2d 603, 604, 752 P.2d 711 (1988).

64. Oral agreements or conduct supplementing or modifying partnership agreement as accruing upon plaintiff's leaving firm examined; statute applicable. Miller v. Foulston, Siefkin, Powers & Eberhardt, 246 K. 450, 463, 790 P.2d 404 (1990).

65. Statute inapplicable to breaches of duties imposed by law upon doctors and hospitals. Crockett v. Medicalodges, Inc., 247 K. 433, 442, 799 P.2d 1022 (1990).

66. Breach of contract claim of beneficiaries of will and trust agreement arose when instruments executed. Elliott v. White, O'Connor & Werner, P.A., 750 F.Supp. 451, 455 (1990).

67. Cited in opinion certifying to U.S. district court that 60-507 is statute of limitations applicable to inverse condemnation proceedings. Hiji v. City of Garnett, 248 K. 1, 3, 804 P.2d 950 (1991).

68. Appropriate statute of limitation for actions under 42 U.S.C.A. § 1983 arising in Kansas is two years. Johnson v. Johnson County Comm'n Bd., 925 F.2d 1299 (1991).

69. Demand for and refusal to pay dividends required before statute runs on action to enforce distribution; applicable time period not determined. Leek v. The Alliance Fund, Inc., 15 K.A.2d 250, 254, 806 P.2d 491 (1991).

70. Paragraph (2) applies to action brought under Kansas consumer protection act. Skeet v. Sears, Roebuck & Co., 760 F.Supp. 872, 877 (1992).

71. Amended complaint renaming defendants not timely filed; relation back to time of original complaint not allowed. Wandrey v. Service Business Forms, Inc., 762 F.Supp. 299, 302, 304 (1991).

72. Equitable estoppel and doctrine of adverse domination applied in tolling of statute of limitations. Resolution Trust Corp. v. Interstate Federal Corp., 762 F.Supp. 905, 908 (1991).

73. Cause of action for breach of contract accrues at time of breach; plaintiff did not discover fraud until defendant repudiated contract. Corvell v. Photo Images, Inc., 774 F.Supp. 1321 (1991).

74. Three-year statute of limitations applicable to implied employment contract claims. Witherspoon v. Roadway Exp., Inc., 782 F.Supp. 567, 573 (1992).

75. Claim regarding alleged preferential transfers was not barred by statute of limitations. In Re Key Truck Leasing, Inc., 16 B.R. 398, 399, 402 (1982).

76. Three-year statute of limitations applies to state securities fraud in offer or sale. Comeau v. Rupp, 810 F.Supp. 1127, 1132 (1992).

77. Discovery rule applies to state three-year statute of limitations for security fraud action. Mid Kansas Fed. S&L v. Orpheum Theater Co., 810 F.Supp. 1184, 1185, 1193 (1992).

78. Plaintiff had sufficient knowledge of reverse discrimination claim to bring action within state personal injury statute of limitations. Baker v. Board of Regents of State of Kan., 991 F.2d 628, 629, 631, 632 (1992).

79. Product liability claim is subject to statute of limitations in 60-513. Fennesy v. LBI Mgt., Inc., 18 K.A.2d 61, 64, 66, 847 P.2d 1350 (1993).

80. Whether statute of limitations for claims based on statutory liability or written contract applied examined. First Nat. Bank and Trust v. Farmland Industries, 3 F.3d 1366, 1368 (1993).

81. Whether customer's claim bank wrongly required payment of forged checks was contract breach for limitations purposes examined. In re Mid-American Clean Waster Systems, Inc., 159 B.R. 941, 945 (1993).

82. Whether statute of limitations based on statutory liability or written contract applied to declassified, terminated state employee's reinstatement claim examined. Wright v. Kansas Water Office, 255 K. 990, 994, 881 P.2d 567 (1994).

83. Whether sex discrimination claims pursuant to KAAD (44-1001 et seq.) are subject to three-year statute of limitations examined. Wagher v. Guy's Foods, Inc., 256 K. 300, 302, 306, 885 P.2d 1197 (1994).

84. Whether KTCA (75-6101 et seq.) noncontract claim is subject to two-or three-year statute of limitations examined; KTCA does not create liability. Gehring v. State, 20 K.A.2d 246, 247, 886 P.2d 370 (1994).

85. Whether one-year statute of limitations for actions based on penalty or forfeiture applied to 66-176 treble damages action examined. Rothwell v. Werner Enterprises, Inc., 859 F.Supp. 470, 478 (1994).

86. Which statute of limitations applies to security fraud civil actions examined; discovery rule discussed. Kelly v. Primeline Advisory, Inc., 256 K. 978, 979, 983, 889 P.2d 130 (1995).

87. Whether action based on implied warranty of workmanlike performance is subject to three- or five-year statute of limitations examined. Zenda Grain & Supply Co. v. Farmland Industries, Inc., 20 K.A.2d 728, 740, 894 P.2d 881 (1995).

88. Limitations law of forum state applied making claims untimely. Kansas Pub. Emp. Retirement v. Reimer & Koger, 61 F.3d 608, 609, 614 (1995).

89. Sexual abuse claim which occurred before 60-523 effective date may not be revived by 60-523. Ripley v. Tolbert, 260 K. 491, 495, 921 P.2d 1210 (1996).

90. Action to enforce term of promissory note subject to five-year statute of limitations contained in 60-511(l). Hoelting Enterprises v. Nelson, 23 K.A.2d 228, 231, 929 P.2d 183 (1996).

91. Insurer's claim for comparative implied indemnity time barred; three-year contract statute of limitations applied. U.S. Fidelity and Guar. Co. v. Sulco, 939 F.Supp. 820, 826 (1996).

92. Counter claim by party for legal malpractice subject to three-year oral contract statute of limitations. Turner and Boisseau v. Nationwide Mut. Ins. Co., 944 F.Supp. 842, 844 (1996).

93. Claim that city pension contract unconstitutionally interfered with by statutory changes barred by 60-511. Johnson v. KPERS, 262 K. 185, 188, 935 P.2d 1049 (1997).

94. Claim that implied contract obligation arising from act performed three years prior to filing of action barred. Western Video Collectors v. Mercantile Bank, 23 K.A.2d 703, 707, 935 P.2d 237 (1997).

95. Claim brought pursuant to 66-176 is subject to three-year statute of limitations. United Cities Gas Co. v. Brock Exploration Co., 984 F.Supp. 1379, 1385 (1997).

96. Claim by client for refund of attorney fees and expenses subject to three-year contract breach statute of limitations. Turner and Boisseau v. Nationwide Mut. Ins. Co., 989 F.Supp. 1359, 1361 (1997).

97. Four-year federal limitations period applied to employment discrimination claim. Alexander v. Precison Machining, Inc., 990 F.Supp. 1304, 1306 (1997).

98. Claims seeking actual damages under KCPA (50-623 et seq.) subject to three-year limitations period; penalties claims subject to one-year limitations period. Griffin v. Security Pacific Automotive Financial, 25 F.Supp.2d 1214, 1217 (1998).

99. Indemnity claim subject to three year statute of limitations was timely filed. St. Francis Regional Medical Center v. Critical Care, 997 F.Supp. 1413, 1433 (1997).

100. Homeowners' claim for civil penalties for state consumer protection claims were time-barred. Alexander v. Certified Master Builder Corp., 43 F.Supp.2d 1242, 1249 (1999).

101. KCPA three-year statute of limitations applied. Beltz v. Dings, 27 K.A.2d 507, 6 P.3d 424 (2000).

102. State three-year statute of limitations on unwritten contracts governed indemnification claim. Fleming Companies, Inc. v. GAB Business Services, 103 F.Supp.2d 1271, 1276 (2000).

103. Securities fraud claims accrued when trust learned that trust assets had been transferred. Bagby v. Merril Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, 104 F.Supp.2d 1294, 1298 (2000).

104. Trial court cannot, sua sponte, raise issue of affirmative defense. Limestone Farms, Inc. v. Deere & Company, 29 K.A.2d 609, 29 P.3d 457 (2001).

105. Two year statute of limitations had run under 60-513; three year statute of limitations under 60-512, based on implied contractual immunity, no help to appellant as master must be without fault in order to recover against its agent. Med James, Inc. v. Barnes, 31 K.A.2d 89, 61 P.3d 86 (2003).

106. Kansas restraint of trade act price fixing claim was subject to three-year limitations period. Four B Corp. v. Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd., 253 F.Supp.2d 1147, 1155 (2003).

107. Discovery rule in fraud claim did not apply to investors' action alleging sale of unregistered securities. Perry H. Bacon Trust v. Transition Partners, Ltd., 298 F.Supp.2d 1182, 1187 (2004).

108. Action brought under 22-2523 is subject to three-year statute of limitations. McCormick v. City of Lawrence, 278 K. 797, 104 P.3d 991 (2005).

109. Plaintiff's state-law claims untimely, injury having occurred more than four years before claim filed. Cory v. Aztec Steel Bldg., Inc., 468 F.3d 1226, 1234 (10 th Cir. 2006).

110. Claim under § 510 of ERISA is based on liability created by statute; three-year limitation applies. Burnett v. Southwestern Bell Telephone, 283 K. 134, 135, 154, 151 P.3d 837 (2007).

111. Three-year limitation period applies to Kansas consumer protection act claims. Four Seasons Apts. v. AAA Glass Service, Inc., 37 K.A.2d 248, 250, 152 P.3d 101 (2007).

112. Equitable contribution is governed by three-year limitation; discussion on whether claims constitute single occurrence. Ace Property & Cas. Ins. v. Superior Boiler Works, 504 F.Supp.2d 1154, 1161, 1162 (2007).

113. Summary judgment on unjust enrichment claim granted title company overcharging real estate recording fees; suit time-barred. Doll v. Chicago Title Ins. Co., 517 F.Supp.2d 1273, 1281 (2007).

114. Cause of action accrued under KCPA when surgeon made misrepresentation prior to surgery. Culp v. Timothy M. Sifers, M.D., P.A., 533 F.Supp.2d 1119 (2007).

115. Statute of limitation for action under Kansas consumer protection act is three years. Thompson v. Jiffy Lube Intern., Inc., 505 F.Supp.2d 907, 924 (2007).

116. Two-year statute for conversion claim and three-year statute for unjust enrichment; when injury ascertainable. Northern Natural Gas Co. v. Nash Oil and Gas Inc., 506 F.Supp.2d 520, 525 (2007).

117. Under Kansas consumer protection act; three-year statute of limitation when actual damages are sought. In re Miner, 369 B.R. 655, 658, 671 (2007).

118. Mentioned in discussion of claims under K.S.A. 60-511 versus claims under K.S.A. 60-512. Resolution Oversight Corp. v. Kansas Health Care Stabilization Fund, 38 K.A.2d 899, 910, 175 P.3d 268 (2008).

119. Claims under Kansas consumer protection act subject to three-year statute of limitations under K.S.A. 60-512(2); no tolling provision. Bonura v. Sifers, 39 K.A.2d 617, 634, 181 P.3d 1277 (2008).

120. Cited in discussion of applicable statute of limitation involving subrogation under K.S.A. 40-284(f). Farm Bureau Mut. Ins. Co. v. Progressive Direct Ins. Co., 40 K.A.2d 123, 128, 190 P.3d 989 (2008).

121. Medical malpractice/Kansas consumer protection act claim barred by three-year statute of limitation. Thomas v. Sifers, 535 F.Supp.2d 1200, 1209 (2008).

122. Expenses associated with IRS challenge were sufficient injury to commence statute of limitation. Hutton v. Deutsche Bank, AG, 541 F.Supp.2d 1166, 1171 (2008).

123. Statute of limitation for unjust enrichment is three years; no discovery rule authority found. Northern Natural Gas Co. v. Nash Oil and Gas, Inc., 526 F.3d 626, 630 (2008).

124. Action by executor to seek constructive trust on assets in defendant's possession; unjust enrichment. Estate of Draper v. Bank of America, 288 K. 510, 205 P.3d 698 (2009).

125. Kansas consumer protection act statute of limitations begins when violation of act occurs, no discovery period applicable. Campbell v. Hubbard, 41 K.A.2d 1, 201 P.3d 702 (2009).

126. Actions brought under K.S.A. 66-176 subject to three-year statute of limitations instead of one-year limitation period due to 1995 amendment removing penalty provisions. Fanning v. Sitton Motor Lines Inc., 695 F.Supp.2d 1156 (D. Kan. 2010).

127. The three-year statute of limitations controls both full consideration and treble damages claims under the Kansas restraint of trade act. O'Brien v. Leegin Creative Leather Products, Inc., 294 K. 318, 277 P.3d 1062 (2012).

128. Statute of limitations inapplicable to collection of court costs. State v. Douglas, 47 K.A.2d 734, 279 P.3d 133 (2012).

129. The three-year statute of limitations applies to actions brought under K.S.A. 65-6203. Eastman v. Coffeyville Resources Refining & Marketing, 295 K. 470, 284 P.3d 1049 (2012).

130. The three-year limitations period applies to promissory estoppel claims based on oral promises. Bouton v. Byers, 50 K.A.2d 34, 321 P.3d 780 (2014).

131. Dismissal of indemnity and negligence claim on limitations grounds was not warranted when the time of party's cause of injuries could not be resolved by the record. Unified Sch. Dist. 467 v. Leland A. Gray Architects, LLC, 112 F.Supp.3d 1223, 1231 (D. Kan. 2015).

132. Separate legal harm could have been suffered each time a new round of tuition was paid to enroll in new classes for purposes of the statute of limitations. Florez v. Ginsberg, 57 K.A.2d 207, 216-18, 449 P.3d 770 (2019).

133. District court did not err in concluding the statute of limitations in K.S.A. 60-512 applied to appellant’s claim regarding denial of a 5-year DROP period under K.S.A. 74-4986n. Bott v. State, 62 Kan. App. 2d 625, 634, 521 P.3d 740 (2022).

134. Three-year statute of limitations for breach of oral contract commences to run from date of the breach of contract. Lopez v. Davila, 63 Kan. App. 2d 147, 526 P.3d 674 (2023).


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