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65-6705. Same; written consent of certain persons required before performance of abortion; waiver of requirement; court proceedings; penalties; judicial record and report; civil action. (a) Except in the case of a medical emergency, no person shall perform an abortion upon an unemanicipated minor, unless the person first obtains the notarized written consent of the minor and both parents or the legal guardian of the minor.

(1) If the minor's parents are divorced or otherwise unmarried and living separate and apart, then the written consent of the parent with primary custody, care and control of such minor shall be sufficient.

(2) If the minor's parents are married and one parent is not available to the person performing the abortion in a reasonable time and manner, then the written consent of the parent who is available shall be sufficient.

(3) If the minor's pregnancy was caused by sexual intercourse with the minor's natural father, adoptive father, stepfather or legal guardian, then the written consent of the minor's mother shall be sufficient. Notice of such circumstances shall be reported to the proper authorities as provided in K.S.A. 38-2223, and amendments thereto.

(b) After receiving counseling as provided by subsection (a) of K.S.A. 65-6704, and amendments thereto, the minor may object to the written consent requirement set forth in subsection (a). If the minor so objects, the minor may petition, on her own behalf or by an adult of her choice, the district court of any county of this state for a waiver of the written consent requirement. If the minor so desires, the counselor who counseled the minor as required by K.S.A. 65-6704, and amendments thereto, shall notify the court and the court shall ensure that the minor or the adult petitioning on the minor's behalf is given assistance in preparing and filing the petition. The minor may participate in proceedings in the court on the minor's own behalf or through the adult petitioning on the minor's behalf. The court shall provide a court-appointed counsel to represent the minor at no cost to the minor.

(c) Court proceedings under this section shall be anonymous and the court shall ensure that the minor's identity is kept confidential. The court shall order that a confidential record of the evidence in the proceeding be maintained. All persons shall be excluded from hearings under this section except the minor, her attorney and such other persons whose presence is specifically requested by the applicant or her attorney.

(d) Consent shall be waived if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that either: (1) The minor is mature and well-informed enough to make the abortion decision on her own; or (2) the consent of the individuals specified in subsection (a) would not be in the best interest of the minor.

(e) A court that conducts proceedings under this section shall issue written and specific factual findings and legal conclusions supporting its decision as follows:

(1) Granting the minor's application for waiver of consent pursuant to this section, if the court finds that the minor is mature and well-enough informed to make the abortion decision without the consent of the individuals specified in subsection (a);

(2) granting the minor's application for waiver of consent if the court finds that the minor is immature but that consent of the individuals specified in subsection (a) would not be in the minor's best interest; or

(3) denying the application if the court finds that the minor is immature and that waiver of the consent of the individuals specified in subsection (a) would not be in the minor's best interest.

(f) The court shall give proceedings under this section such precedence over other pending matters as necessary to ensure that the court may reach a decision promptly. The court shall issue a written order which shall be issued immediately to the minor, or her attorney or other individual designated by the minor to receive the order. If the court fails to rule within 48 hours, excluding Saturdays and Sundays, of the time of the filing of the minor's application, the application shall be deemed granted.

(g) An expedited anonymous appeal shall be available to any minor. The record on appeal shall be completed and the appeal shall be perfected within five days from the filing of the notice to appeal.

(h) The supreme court shall promulgate any rules it finds are necessary to ensure that proceedings under this act are handled in an expeditious and anonymous manner.

(i) No fees shall be required of any minor who avails herself of the procedures provided by this section.

(j) (1) No consent shall be required under this section when a medical emergency exists.

(2) A physician acting pursuant to this subsection shall state in the medical record of the abortion the medical indications on which the physician's judgment was based. The medical basis for the determination shall also be reported by the physician as part of the written report made by the physician to the secretary of health and environment under K.S.A. 65-445, and amendments thereto.

(k) Any person who intentionally performs an abortion with knowledge that, or with reckless disregard as to whether, the person upon whom the abortion is to be performed is an unemancipated minor, and who intentionally and knowingly fails to conform to any requirement of this section, is guilty of a class A person misdemeanor.

(l) Except as necessary for the conduct of a proceeding pursuant to this section, it is a class B person misdemeanor for any individual or entity to willfully or knowingly: (1) Disclose the identity of a minor petitioning the court pursuant to this section or to disclose any court record relating to such proceeding; or (2) permit or encourage disclosure of such minor's identity or such record.

(m) Prior to conducting proceedings under this section, the court may require the minor to participate in an evaluation session with a psychiatrist, licensed psychologist or licensed clinical social worker. Such evaluation session shall be for the purpose of developing trustworthy and reliable expert opinion concerning the minor's sufficiency of knowledge, insight, judgment and maturity with regard to her abortion decision in order to aid the court in its decision and to make the state's resources available to the court for this purpose. Persons conducting such sessions may employ the information and materials referred to in K.S.A. 65-6708 et seq., and amendments thereto, in examining how well the minor is informed about pregnancy, fetal development, abortion risks and consequences and abortion alternatives, and should also endeavor to verify that the minor is seeking an abortion of her own free will and is not acting under intimidation, threats, abuse, undue pressure or extortion by any other persons. The results of such evaluation shall be reported to the court by the most expeditious means, commensurate with security and confidentiality, to assure receipt by the court prior to or at the proceedings initiated pursuant to this section.

(n) In determining if a minor is mature and well-enough informed to make the abortion decision without parental consent, the court shall take into account the minor's experience level, perspective and judgment. In assessing the minor's experience level, the court shall consider, along with any other relevant factors, the minor's age, experience working outside the home, living away from home, traveling on her own, handling personal finances and making other significant decisions. In assessing the minor's perspective, the court shall consider, along with any other relevant factors, what steps the minor has taken to explore her options and the extent to which she considered and weighed the potential consequences of each option. In assessing the minor's judgment, the court shall consider, along with any other relevant factors, her conduct since learning of her pregnancy and her intellectual ability to understand her options and to make informed decisions.

(o) The judicial record of any court proceedings initiated pursuant to this section shall upon final determination by the court be compiled by the court. One copy of the judicial record shall be given to the minor or an adult chosen by the minor to bring the initial petition under this section. A second copy of the judicial record shall be sent by the court to the abortion provider who performed or will perform the abortion for inclusion in the minor's medical records and shall be maintained by the abortion provider for at least 10 years.

(p) The chief judge of each judicial district shall send annual reports to the department of health and environment disclosing in a nonidentifying manner:

(1) The number of minors seeking a bypass of the parental consent requirements through court proceedings under this section;

(2) the number of petitions granted;

(3) the reasons for granting such petitions;

(4) any subsequent actions taken to protect the minor from domestic or predator abuse;

(5) each minor's state of residence, age and disability status; and

(6) the gestational age of the unborn child if the petition is granted.

(q) (1) A custodial parent or legal guardian of the minor may pursue civil remedies against individuals, including the physician and abortion clinic staff, who violate the rights of parents, legal guardian or the minor as set forth in this section.

(2) Such relief shall include:

(A) Money damages for all injuries, psychological and physical, occasioned by the violation of this section;

(B) the cost of any subsequent medical treatment such minor might require because of the abortion performed without parental consent or knowledge, or without a court order, in violation of this section;

(C) statutory damages equal to three times the cost of the abortion; and

(D) reasonable attorney fees.

(r) In the course of a judicial hearing to waive parental consent, if the court has reason to suspect that a minor has been injured as a result of physical, mental or emotional abuse or neglect or sexual abuse, the court shall report the matter promptly as provided in subsection (c) of K.S.A. 38-2223, and amendments thereto. In the course of reporting suspected child abuse or neglect to the appropriate state authorities, nothing in this section shall abridge or otherwise modify the anonymity or confidentiality provisions of the judicial waiver proceeding as specified in this section.

(s) Nothing in this section shall be construed to create a right to an abortion. Notwithstanding any provision of this section, a person shall not perform an abortion that is prohibited by law.

History: L. 1992, ch. 183, § 5; L. 1993, ch. 291, § 241; L. 2011, ch. 44, § 5; L. 2014, ch. 87, § 5; April 24.

Cross References to Related Sections:

Abortion clinic licensure, see 65-4a01 et seq.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

"The Mature Minor Doctrine: Can Minors Unilaterally Refuse Medical Treatment?" Michael Hayes, 66 K.L.R. 685, 690 (2018).


1. Kansas residency not required for unemancipated pregnant minor to seek waiver of parental notification. In re Doe, 17 Kan App. 2d 567, 843 P.2d 735 (1992).

2. Whether trial court erred by construing statute more restrictively than legislature intended examined; judicial procedure discussed. In re Doe, 19 Kan App. 2d 204, 206, 866 P.2d 1069 (1994).

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